Rekonstrukce jídelníčku skupin jedinců z hrobek na lokalitách Ailias a Lower Gypsades (Kréta) za použití izotopových dat a Bayesovského směsového modelu (FRUITS)

Název: Rekonstrukce jídelníčku skupin jedinců z hrobek na lokalitách Ailias a Lower Gypsades (Kréta) za použití izotopových dat a Bayesovského směsového modelu (FRUITS)
Variantní název
Diet reconstruction of groups of individuals from the Ailias and Lower Gypsades tombs (Crete) using isotope data and Bayesian mixing model (FRUITS)
Zdrojový dokument: Studia archaeologica Brunensia. 2019, roč. 24, č. 1, s. 25-48
  • ISSN
    1805-918X (print)
    2336-4505 (online)
Type: Článek
V této studii jsou představeny možné stravovací scénáře pro skupiny jedinců z hrobek v Lower Gypsades a Ailias, nacházejících se v blízkosti palácové lokality Knossos, které jsou datované do období takzvaných nových paláců (MM III – LM I). Za pomoci softwaru Fruits (verze 2.1.1 Beta) byly vytvořeny dva typy modelů. Výsledné scénáře implikují, že strava těchto skupin byla založena převážně na rostlinné stravě s významným zastoupením luštěnin, která byla doplněna o konzumaci masa suchozemských živočichů a mořských ryb.
This study is dealing with possible dietary scenarios for the groups of individuals from the Lower Gypsades and Ailias tombs near the palatial site of Knossos, which date back to the so-called Neopalatial Period (MM III – LM I). Two types of models were created using the FRUITS software (2.1.1 Beta version). The resulting scenarios imply that the diet of these groups was prevailingly based on plant food with a significant proportion of legumes, which was supplemented with consumption of meat from terrestrial animals and sea fish.
Jazyk shrnutí
[1] Amundson, R. – Austin, A. T. – Schuur, E. A. G. – Yoo, K. – Matzek, V. – Kendall, C. – Uebersax, A. – Brenner, D. – Baisden, W. T. 2003: Global patterns of the isotopic composition of soil and plant nitrogen, Global Biogeochemical Cycles 17(1), (article no. 1031) 1–11.

[2] Aranibar, J. N. – Otter, L. – Macko, S. A. – Feral, Ch. J. W. – Epstein, H. E. – Dowty, P. R. – Eckardt, F. – Shugart, H. H. – Swap, R. J. 2004: Nitrogen cycling in the soil–plant system along a precipitation gradient in the Kalahari sands, Global Change Biology 10, 359–373. | DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2003.00698.x

[3] Boecherens, H. – Drucker, D. 2003: Trophic level isotopic enrichment of carbon and nitrogen in bone collagen: case studies from recent and ancient terrestrial ecosystemns, Int. J. Osteoarchaeol 13, 46–53. | DOI 10.1002/oa.662

[4] Bogaard, A. – Fraser, R. – Heaton, T. H. E. – Wallace, M. – Vaiglova, P. – Charles, M. – Jones, G. – Evershed, R. P. – Styring, A. K. – Andersen, N. H. – Arbogast, R-M. – Bartosiewicz, L. – Gardeisen, A. – Kanstrup, M. – Maier, U. – Marinova, E. – Ninov, L. – Schäfer, M. – Stephan, E. 2013: Crop manuring and intensive land management by Europe's first farmers, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110(31), 12589–12594. | DOI 10.1073/pnas.1305918110

[5] Bruce, J. – Fry, B. 1987: Stable Isotopes in Ecosystem studies, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 18, 293–320. | DOI 10.1146/

[6] Bull, I. D. – Betancourt, P. P. – Evershed, R. P. 2001: An Organic Geochemical Investigation of the Practice of Manuring at a Minoan Site on Pseira Island, Crete, Geoarchaeology: An International Journal 16, 223–242. | DOI 10.1002/1520-6548(200102)16:2<223::AID-GEA1002>3.0.CO;2-7

[7] DeNiro, M. J. – Epstein, S. 1978: Influence of Diet on the Distribution of Carbon Isotopes in Animals, Geochimica et Cosmochimica 42, 495–506. | DOI 10.1016/0016-7037(78)90199-0

[8] DeNiro, M. J. – Hastorf, C. A. 1981: Influence of Diet on the Distribution of Nitrogen Isotopes in Animals, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 45(3), 341–51. | DOI 10.1016/0016-7037(81)90244-1

[9] Dotsika, E. – Diamantopoulos, G. – Lykoudis, S. – Gougoura, S. – Kranioti, E. – Karalis, P. – Michael, D. – Samartzidou, E. – Palaigeorgiou, E. 2019: Establishment of a Greek Food Database for Palaeodiet Reconstruction: Case Study of Human and Fauna Remains from Neolithic to Late Bronze Age from Greece, Geosciences 9(4), 165. | DOI 10.3390/geosciences9040165

[10] Fernandes, R. – Grootes, Nadeau, M. J. – Nehlich, O. 2014b: Quantitative Diet Reconstruction of a Neolithic Population Using a Bayesian Mixing Model (FRUITS): The Case Study of Ostorf (Germany), American Journal of Physical Antrophology 158(2), 325–340.

[11] Fernandes, R. – Millard, A. R. – Brabec, M. – Nadeau, M-J. – Grootes, P. 2014a: Food Reconstruction Using Isotopic Transferred Signals (FRUITS): A Bayesian Model for Diet Reconstruction, PLoS ONE 9(2), e87436.

[12] Fernandes, R. – Nadeau, M. J. – Grootes, P. M. 2012: Macronutrient-based-model for dietary carbon routing in bone collagen and bioapatite, Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 4(4), 291–301. | DOI 10.1007/s12520-012-0102-7

[13] Fernandes, R. 2015: A Simple(R) Model to Predict the Source of Dietary Carbon in Individual Consumers, Archaeometry 58(3), 1–13.

[14] Forbes, R. J. 1955: Studies in Ancient Technology, Volume III. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

[15] Fraser, R. A. – Bogaard, A. – Heaton, T. – Charles, M. – Jones, G. – Christensen, B. T. – Halstead, P. – Merbach, I. – Poulton, P. R. – Sparkes, D. – Styring, A. K. 2011: Manuring and stable nitrogen isotope ratios in cereals and pulses: towards a new archaeobotanical approach to the inference of land use and dietary practices, Journal of Archaeological Science 38, 2790–2804. | DOI 10.1016/j.jas.2011.06.024

[16] Garcia-Guixé, E. – Subirà, M. E. – Marlasca, R. – Richards, M. P. 2010: δ13C and δ15N in ancient and recent fish bones from the Mediterranean Sea, Journal of Archaeological Science 17, 83–92.

[17] Heaton, T. – Jones, G. – Halstead, P. – Tsipropoulos, T. 2009: Variations in the 13C/12C ratios of modern wheat grain, and implications for interpreting data from Bronze Age Assiros Toumba, Greece, Journal of Archaeological Science 36(10), 2224–2233. | DOI 10.1016/j.jas.2009.06.007

[18] Hood, M. S. F. 1957: Archaeology in Greece, 1957, Archaeological Reports 4, 22–23.

[19] Hood, M. S. F. 2010: The Middle Minoan Cemetery on Ailias at Knossos. In: Krzyzskowska, O. (ed.), Cretan Offerings: Studies in honour of Peter Warren. Londýn: British School at Athens studies 18, 161–168.

[20] Christakis, K. S. 2008: THE POLITICS OF STORAGE: Storage and Sociopolitical Complexity in Neopalatial Crete (Prehistoric Monographs 25). Filadelfie.

[21] Isaakidou, V. – Styring, A. – Halstead, P. – Nitsch, E. – Stroud, E. – le Roux, P. – Lee-Thorp, J. – Bogaard, A. 2019: From texts to teeth: A multi-isotope study of sheep and goat herding practices in the Late Bronze Age (‘Mycenaean') polity of Knossos, Crete, Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 23, 36–56. | DOI 10.1016/j.jasrep.2018.09.019

[22] Jay, M. – Richards, M. P. 2006: Diet in the Iron Age Cemetery Population at Wetwang Slack, East Yorkshire, UK: Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Evidence, Journal of Archaeological Science, 33(5), 653–62. | DOI 10.1016/j.jas.2005.09.020

[23] Klontza-Jáklová, V. 2016: What's wrong? Hard science and humanities – tackling the question of the absolute chronology of the Santorini eruption. Brno: Masarykova univerzita.

[24] Koder, J. 1992: Ο Κηπουρóς και η Καθημερινἡ Kουζíναψ στο βυζáντιο, Atény.

[25] Kriszan, M. – Amelung, W. – Schellberg, J. – Gebbing, T. – Kühbauch, W. 2009: Long-term changes of the δ15N natural abundance of plants and soil in a temperate grassland, Plant and Soil 325(1–2), 157–169. | DOI 10.1007/s11104-009-9965-5

[26] Lamb, A. L. – Evans, J. E. – Buckley, R. – Appleby, J. 2014: Multi-isotope analysis demonstrates significant lifestyle changes in King Richard III, Journal of Archaeological Science 50, 559–565. | DOI 10.1016/j.jas.2014.06.021

[27] Lee-Thorp, J. A. 2008: On isotopes and old bones, Archaeometry 50, 925–950. | DOI 10.1111/j.1475-4754.2008.00441.x

[28] Livarda, A. - Kotzamani, G. 2013: The Archaeobotany of Neolithic and Bronze Age Crete: Synthesis and Prospects, The Annual of the British School at Athens 108(1), 1-29. | DOI 10.1017/S0068245413000063

[29] Margaritis E. 2017: The plant remains of the house tombs at Petras: Acts of destruction, transformation and preservation. In Tsipopoulou, M. (ed.), Monographs of the Danish Institute at Athens, Volume 21: Petras, Siteia. The Pre – and Proto-palatial cemetery in context. Acts of a two-day conference held at the Danish Institute at Athens, 14–15 February 2015. Atény: Danish Institute at Athens, 225–235.

[30] Marshall, J. D. – Brooks, J. R. – Lajtha, K. 2007: Sources of variation in the stable isotopic composition of plants. In Michener, R – Lajtha, K. (eds.), Stable Isotopes in Ecology and Environmental Science, Second Edition. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 22–60.

[31] Merwe, N. van der. – Tykot, R. H. – Hammond, N. – Oakberg, K. 2002: Diet and Animal Husbandry of the Preclassic Maya at Cuello, Belize: Isotopic and Zooarchaeological Evidence. In Ambrose, S. H. – Katzenberg, M. A. (eds.), Biogeochemical Approaches to to Paleodietary Analysis. New York: Kluwer academic/Plenum publishers, 23–38.

[32] Michener, R. H. – Kaufman, L. 2007: Stable isotope ratios as tracers in marine food webs: An update. In Michener, R – Lajtha, K. (eds.), Stable Isotopes in Ecology and Environmental Science, Second Edition. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 238–282.

[33] Minagawa, M. – Wada, E. 1984: Stepwise Enrichment of 15N along Food Chains: Further Evidence and the Relation between D15n and Animal Age, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 48, 1135–40. | DOI 10.1016/0016-7037(84)90204-7

[34] Morrison, D. J. - Dodson, B. - Slater, C. - Preston, T. 2000: 13C natural abundance in the British diet: implications for 13C breath tests, Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 14, 1321-1324. | DOI 10.1002/1097-0231(20000815)14:15<1321::AID-RCM946>3.0.CO;2-8

[35] Nafplioti, A. 2016: Eating in prosperity: First stable isotope evidence of diet from Palatial Knossos, Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 6, 42–52. | DOI 10.1016/j.jasrep.2016.01.017

[36] Newsome, S. D. – Phillips, D. L. – Culleton, B. J. – Guilderson, T. P. – Koch, P. L. 2004: Dietary reconstruction of an early to middle Holocene human population from the central California coast: insights from advanced stable isotope mixing models, Journal of Archaeological Science 31, 1101–1115. | DOI 10.1016/j.jas.2004.02.001

[37] Nitsch, E. – Andreou, S. – Creuzieux, A. – Gardeisen, A. – Halstead, P. – Isaakidou, V. – Karathanou, A. – Kotsachristou, D. – Nikolaidou, D. – Papanthimou, A. – Petridou, Ch. – Triantaphyllou, S. – Valamoti, S. M. – Vasileiadou, A. – Bogaard, A. 2017: A bottomup view of food surplus: using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to investigate agricultural strategies and diet at Bronze Age Archontiko and Thessaloniki Toumba, northern Greece, WORLD ARCHAEOLOGY 49, 105–137. | DOI 10.1080/00438243.2016.1271745

[38] Nitsch, E. - Jones, G. - Sarpaki, A. - Hald, M. M. - Bogaard, A. 2019: Farming Practice and Land Management at Knossos, Crete: New Insights from δ13C and δ15N Analysis of Neolithic and Bronze Age Crop Remains. In Garcia, D. – Orgeolet, R. – Pomadère, M. – Zurbach, J. (eds.), Country in the City: Agricultural Functions in Protohistoric Urban Settlements (Aegean and Western Mediterranean). Oxford: Archaeopress Publishing Ltd, 152-168.

[39] Nowicki, K. 1999: Economy of Refugees: Life in the Cretan Mountains at the Turn of the Bronze and Iron Age. In Chaniotis, A. (ed.), From Minoan farmers to Roman traders: sidelights on the economy of ancient Crete. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag (Heidelberger althistorische Beiträge und epigraphische Studien, Bd. 29), 145–171.

[40] Papathanasiou, A. 2015: Stable Isotope Analy se s in Neolithic and Bronze Age Greece: An Overview. In Papathanasiou, A. – Richards, M. P. – Fox, S. C. (eds.), Archaeodiet in the Greek World: Dietary Reconstruction From Stable Isotope Analysis. Princeton: Hesperia Supplement 49, 25–55.

[41] Peterson, B. J. – Fry, B. 1987: Stable isotopes in ecosystem studies, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 18, 293–320. | DOI 10.1146/

[42] Petroutsa, E. – Richards, M. – Kolonas, L. – Manolis, S. 2009: Isotope Paleodietary Analysis of Humans and Fauna from the Late Bronze Age Site of Voudeni. In Schepartz, L. A. – Fox, S. C. – Bourbou, Ch. (eds.), New Directions in the Skeletal Biology of Greece. Princeton: Hesperia Suplements (43), 237–243.

[43] Petroutsa, E. I. – Manolis, S. K. 2010: Reconstructing Late Bronze Age diet in mainland Greece using stable isotope analysis, Journal of Archaeological Science 37, 614–620. | DOI 10.1016/j.jas.2009.10.026

[44] Preston, L. 2013: The Middle Minoan III funerary landscape at Knossos. In Macdonald, C. F. – Knappet, C. (eds.), INTERMEZZO: Intermediacy and Regeneration in Middle Minoan III Palatial Crete. Londýn: British school at Athens, 57–70.

[45] Richards, M. P. – Hedges, R. E. M. 1999: Stable Isotope Evidence for Similarities in the Types of Marine Foods Used by Late Mesolithic Humans at Sites along the Atlantic Coast of Europe, Journal of Archaeological Science, 26(6), 717–722. | DOI 10.1006/jasc.1998.0387

[46] Richards, M. P. – Hedges, R. E. M. 2007: 7. Stable isotope evidence of past human diet at the sites of the Neolithic cave of Gerani; the Late Minoan III cemetery of Armenoi; Grave Circles A and B at the Palace of Mycenae; and Late Helladic Chamber tombs. In: Tzedakis, Y., Martlew, H., Jones, M. (eds.), Archaeology Meets Science. Biomolecular Investigations in Bronze Age Greece. The primary scientific evidence, 1997–2003. Oxford: Oxbow books, 220–230.

[47] Richards, M. P. – Trinkaus, E. 2009: Isotopic evidence for the diets of European Neanderthals and early modern humans, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(38), 16034–16039.

[48] Richards, M. P. – Vika, E. 2008: Stable isotope results from new sites in the Peloponnese: Sykia, Kalamaki and Spaliareika. In: Martlew, H., Tzedakis, Y., Jones, M. (eds.), Archaeology Meets Science: Biomolecular and Site Investigations in Bronze Age Greece, Oxford: Oxbow books, 231–235.

[49] Richards, M. P. 2015: Stable Isotope Analy sis of Bone and Tee th as a Means for Reconst ruct ing Past Human Diets in Greece. In Papathanasiou, A. – Richards, M. P. – Fox, S. C. (eds.), Archaeodiet in the Greek World: Dietary Reconstruction From Stable Isotope Analysis. Princeton: Hesperia Supplement 49, 15–23.

[50] Sarpaki, A. 2013: 3. The Economy of Neolithic Knossos: The Archaeobotanical Data. In Efstratiou, N. – Karetsou, A. – Ntinou, M. (eds.), The Neolithic Settlement of Knossos in Crete. New evidence for the early occupation of crte and the Aegean Islands. Filadelfie: Instap Academic Press, 63–94.

[51] Sealy, J. – Armstrong, R. – Schrire, C. 1995: Beyond lifetime averages: tracing life histories through isotopic analysis of different calcified tissues from archaeological human skeletons, Antiquity 69, 290–300. | DOI 10.1017/S0003598X00064693

[52] Shay, C. T. – Shay, M. J. 1995: The Modern Flora and Plant Remains from Bronze Age Deposits at Kommos. In Shaw, J. W. – Shaw, M. C. (eds.), Kommos: An Excavation on the South Coast of Crete, Volume I, Part I. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 91–162.

[53] Shay, M. J. – Shay, C. T. 2004: Enviroment, Land Capability, and Botanical Studies in Western Mesara. In Watrous, L. V. – Vallianou, D. H. – Blitzer, H. (eds), The Plain of Phaistos: Cycles of Social Complexity in the Mesara Region of Crete. Los Angeles: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, 59–110.

[54] Tieszen, L. L. 1991: Natural Variations in the Carbon Isotope Values of Plants: Implications for Archaeology, Ecology, and Paleoecology, Journal of Archaeological Science 18, 227–248.

[55] Triantaphyllou, S. – Richards, M. P. – Zerner, C. – Voutsaki, S. 2008: Isotopic dietary reconstruction of humans from Middle Bronze Age Lerna, Argolid, Greece, Journal of Archaeological Science 35, 3028–3034.

[56] USDA [online]. Lentils, raw. National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Legacy Release [cit. 30. 6. 2019]. Dostupné z:

[57] Vika, E. – Theodoropoulou, T. 2012: Re-investigating fish consumption in Greek antiquity: results from δ13C and δ15N analysis from fish bone collagen, Journal of Archaeological Science 39, 1618–1627. | DOI 10.1016/j.jas.2012.01.016