Een woordsoort als brug

Variantní název
A part of speech as a bridge
Zdrojový dokument: Brünner Beiträge zur Germanistik und Nordistik. 2020, roč. 33, č. 2, s. 79-91
  • ISSN
    1803-7380 (print)
    2336-4408 (online)
Type: Článek
The aim of this paper is to show that blends or portmanteau words form an intermediate category between monomorphemic and polymorphemic words. First, it will be shown that one must distinguish between two types of concatenations of portions of two words. On the one hand formations that combine the first portions of the two source words and on the other hand words in which the first part of the first source word is combined with the final part of the second. These last group are real blends. The first one is better called clipped compounds, complex clippings or stub compounds. Both groups show a righthand head. Clipped compounds appear to be a subcategory of compounds and follow the Compound Stress Rule. In blends the right part of the final form is also the head. However, blends copy the prosodic and syllabic structure of the second source word. Whereas compounds consist of at least two prosodic or phonological words, blends consist of only one. This leads to the conclusion that blends can best be described as an intermediate category between compounds and simplex words. Most of the examples described in this paper come from Dutch, however, some German and English examples are also discussed. Blending operates in a similar way in these languages. Therefore, the analysis presented here does not claim universal validity.
[1] Arndt-Lappe, Sabine – Plag, Igno (2012): Phonological Variability in English Blends, paper presented at the Conference "Data-Rich Approaches to English Morphology: From corpora and experiments to theory and back". Wellington New Zealand, 4–6 July 2012.

[2] Aronoff, Mark (1976): Word Formation in Generative Grammar. Cambridge mass.: MIT Press.

[3] Bat-El, Outi – Cohen, Evan-Gary (2012): Stress in English blends: A constraint based analysis. In: Renner, Vincent – Maniez, François & Arnaud, Pierre (eds.), Crossdisciplinary Perspectives on Lexical Blending. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton: pp. 193–211.

[4] Bauer, Laurie (1983): English word-formation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[5] Bauer, Laurie (1988): Introducing Linguistic Morphology. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

[6] Bauer, Laurie – Liber, Rochelle & Plag, Ingo (2013): English Morphology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[7] Beard, Robert (1998): Derivation. In: Spencer, Andrew – Zwicky, Arnold M. (eds.): The Handbook of Morphology. Oxford: Blackwell: pp. 44–65.

[8] Booij, Geert (1995): The Phonology of Dutch. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

[9] Booij, Geert (1999): The role of the prosodic word in phonotactic generalizations. In: Hall, T. Alan – Kleinhenz, Ursula (eds.): Studies on the Phonological Word. Amsterdam: John Benjamins: pp. 47–71.

[10] Booij, Geert (2019): The Morphology of Dutch. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Second edition.

[11] Booij, Geert – Van Santen, Ariane (2018): Morfologie. De woordstructuur van het Nederlands. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. 3e geheel herziene druk.

[12] Chomsky, Noam – Halle, Morris (1968): The Sound Pattern of English. New York: Harper & Row.

[13] Fradin, Bernard (2000): Combining forms, blends and related phenomena. In: Doleschal, Ursula – Thornton, Anna M. (eds.): Extragrammatical and Marginal Morphology. Munich: Lincom: pp. 11–59.

[14] Grésillon, Almuth (1984): La règle et le monster: le mot-valise. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag.

[15] Hamans, Camiel (2018a): Between stub compounds and blends. In: Masiulionyté, Virginija – Volungevičiené, Skaisté (eds.): Fremde und Eigene Sprachen. Linguistische Perspektive, Foreign and Own Languages. Linguistic Perspectives. Akten des 51 Linguistischen Kolloquiums in Vilnius 2016, Selected papers of the 51st Linguistics Colloquium in Vilnius 2016. Berlin: Peter Lang: pp. 353–371.

[16] Hamans, Camiel (2018b): Between Abi and Propjes: Some remarks about clipping in English, German, Dutch and Swedish. In: Skase, Journal of Theoretical Linguistics [online]. 15, 2, 24–59. Available at: (08.08.2019).

[17] Haspelmath, Martin (2002): Understanding Morphology. London: Arnold.

[18] Kastovsky, Dieter (2009): Astronaut, astrology, astrophysics: About Combining Forms, Classical Compounds and Affixoids. In: McConchie, Roderick W. – Honkapohja, Alpo & Tyrkkö, Jukka (eds.). Selected Proceedings of the 2008 Symposium on New Approaches in English Historical Lexis (HEL-LEX 2).

[19] Peperkamp, Sharon (1999): Prosodic Words. In: Glot International 4,4: pp. 15–16.

[20] Rainer, Franz (1993): Spanische Wortbildungslehre. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

[21] Spencer, Andrew (1991): Morphological Theory: an Introduction to Word Structure in Generative Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[22] Spencer, Andrew (1998): Morphophonological Operations. In: Spencer, Andrew and Zwicky, Arnold M. (eds.), The Handbook of Morphology. Oxford: Blackwell: pp. 123–143.

[23] Uhlenbeck, Eugenius M. (Bob) (1959): Taalwetenschap. Den Haag: H.L. Smits.

[24] Williams, Edwin (1981): On the notions 'lexically related' and 'head of a word'. In: Linguistic Inquiry 12, pp. 245–274.