Locus of control analysed with regards to non-traditional tertiary students of education

Source document: Studia paedagogica. 2020, vol. 25, iss. 4, pp. [135]-159
  • ISSN
    1803-7437 (print)
    2336-4521 (online)
Type: Article
License: Not specified license
Locus of control, as a psychological characteristic, influences the experience and behaviour of individuals in all life situations, including the moment when an adult enters university and becomes a non-traditional student. Research on the locus of control of students at a faculty preparing experts for educational professions (teachers of all levels, social and special pedagogues, and andragogues) was initiated due to the increasing failure rate of non-traditional students within university efforts to achieve quality in all teaching activities and the need to verify the assumption that most applicants with an internal locus of control (ILC) choose an educational profession requiring management of other people's learning. The Zemanová Dolejš Locus of Control Scale revealed a dominant ILC or external (ELC) localisation of the locus of control in all 411 tertiary students, 152 of whom were non-traditional students. Considering their distribution into ILC and ELC, statistically significant relationships were identified in locus of control according to the form of study. For non-traditional students, no statistically significant relationships were found for age or type or years of study for either ILC or ELC.
  • This study was created within the project of the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic called "Education in engineering and its optimisation for the needs of the labour market," registration number TJ 02000083, carried out at the Faculty of Education at the University of Ostrava between 2019 and 2021.
[1] Akca, F., Ulutas, E., & Yabanci, C. (2018). Investigation of teachers' self-efficacy beliefs, locus of control and intercultural sensitivities from the perspective of individual differences. Journal of Education and Learning, 7(3), 219–232. | DOI 10.5539/jel.v7n3p219

[2] Akkaya, R., & Akyol, B. (2016). The relationship between teachers' locus of control and job satisfaction: A mixed method study. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 8(3), 71–82. | DOI 10.15345/iojes.2016.03.008

[3] American Psychological Association (n.d.). APA Dictionary of Psychology. Locus of control.

[4] Barot, T., Burgsteiner, H., & Kolleritsch, W. (2020). Comparison of discrete autocorrelation functions with regards to statistical significance. In R. Silhavy (Ed.), Applied Informatics and Cybernetics in Intelligent Systems, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing (pp. 257–266). Springer.

[5] Basak, R., & Ghosh, A. (2011). School environment and locus of control in relation to job satisfaction among school teachers. A study from Indian perspective. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 1199–1208.

[6] Bean, J. P., & Eaton, S. (2000). A psychological model of college student retention. In J. M. Braxton (Ed.), Reworking the departure puzzle: New theory and research on college student retention (pp. 73–89). University of Vanderbilt Press.

[7] Bean, J. P., & Metzner, B. S. (1985). A conceptual model of nontraditional undergraduate student attrition. Review of Educational Research, 55(4), 485–540. | DOI 10.3102/00346543055004485

[8] Betoret, F. D. (2013). Teacher psychological needs, locus of control and engagement. Spanish Journal of Psychology, 16(e29), 1–13. | DOI 10.1017/sjp.2013.51

[9] Bodill, K., & Roberts, L. D. (2013). Implicit theories of intelligence and academic locus of control as predictors of studying behaviour. Learning and Individual Differences, 27, 163–166. | DOI 10.1016/j.lindif.2013.08.001

[10] Brücknerová, K., & Rabušicová, M. (2019). Netradiční vysokoškolští studenti: charakteristiky a potenciál odloženého studia. Studia Paedagogica, 24(1), 39–49. | DOI 10.5817/SP2019-1-2

[11] Cachia, M., Lynam, S., & Stock, R. (2018). Academic success: Is it just about the grades? Higher Education Pedagogies, 3(1), 434–439.

[12] Curtis, N. A., & Trice, A. D. (2013). A revision of the academic locus of control scale for college students. Perceptual & Motor Skills: Physical Development & Measurement, 116(3), 817–829. | DOI 10.2466/08.03.PMS.116.3.817-829

[13] Dolejš, M., Zemanová, V., & Vavrysová, L. (2019). Vztah místa kontroly a rizikových aktivit u českých adolescentů. Diskuze v psychologii, 1(1), 1–8.

[14] Fazey, D. M. A., & Fazey, J. A. (2001). The potential for autonomy in learning: Perceptions of competence, motivation and locus of control in first-year undergraduate students. Studies in Higher Education, 26(3), 345–361. | DOI 10.1080/03075070120076309

[15] Fraser, W. J., & Killen, R. (2003). Factors influencing academic success or failure of first-year and senior university students: Do education students and lecturers perceive things differently? South African Journal of Education, 23(4), 254–260.

[16] Gauthier, T. D., & Hawley, M. E. (2015). Statistical Methods. In B. L. Murphy, & D. M. Robert (Eds.), Introduction to Environmental Forensics. (3rd edition, pp. 99–148). Elsevier.

[17] Gliszczyńska, X. (1990). Skala I-E w Pracy. Technika pomiaru poczucia kontroli w sytuacji pracy. Podręcznik. Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychologicznego.

[18] Glossary of Educational Reform. (2013, October 25). Locus of control.

[19] Hammer, Ø., Harper, D. A. T., & Ryan, P. D. (2001). Past: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica, 4(1), 1–9.

[20] Kim, E., Newton, F. B., Downey, R. G., & Benton, S. L. (2010). Personal factor impacting college student success: Constructing college learning effectiveness inventory (CLEI). College Student Journal, 44(1), 112–125.

[21] Kiral, B. (2019). Exploring the relationship between teachers' locus of control with different variables. Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 14(2), 88–104.

[22] Kitchenham, B., Madeyski, L., Budgen, D., Keung, J., Brereton, P., Charters, S., Gibbs, S., & Pohthong A. (2017). Robust statistical methods for empirical software engineering. Empirical Software Engineering, 22(2), 579–630. | DOI 10.1007/s10664-016-9437-5

[23] Lacková, L. (2014). Protective factors of university students. New Educational Review, 38(4), 273–286.

[24] Levenson, H. (1973). Reliability and validity of the I, P, and C scales—a multidimensional view of locus of control. American Psychological Association Convention.

[25] Mahajan, N., & Kaur, J. (2012). Relation between locus of control of college teachers and their job satisfaction. International Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(5), 98–103. | DOI 10.5923/j.ijap.20120205.04

[26] Mohamed, A. A., Mohammed, A. M., & Ahmed, H. A-E. (2018). Relation between locus of control and academic achievement of nursing students at Damanhour university. IOSR Journal of Nursing and Health Science, 7(5) 1–13.

[27] Moses, L., Hall, C., Wuensch, K., De Urquidi, K., Kauffman, P., Swart, W., Duncan, S., & Dixon, G. (2011). Are math readiness and personality predictive of first-year retention in engineering? Journal of Psychology, 145(3), 229–245. | DOI 10.1080/00223980.2011.557749

[28] Parys, K. (2018). Innowacyjność w pracy zawodowej i poczucie umiejscowienia kontroli działania pedagogów specjalnych. Rocznik Komisji Nauk Pedagogicznych, 61, 126–142.

[29] Poziemska, J. (2015, September 17). Poczucie umiejcowienia kontroli zdrazeń szkolnych a osiągnięcia edukacyjne. XXI Krajowa Konferencja Diagnostyki Edukacyjnej-Zastosowania Diagnozy Edukacyjnej, Kraków, Poland.

[30] Pšeno, M., & Vavráková, E. (2015). Miesto kontroly a výchovný štýl rodičov. Psychológia a patopsychológia dieťaťa, 49(1–2), 40–49.

[31] Procházka, J., Macanová, A., Mokrá, T., Nekulová, P., Vodička, A., Zezulka, R., Ježek, S., & Vaculík, M. (2014). Vztah prokrastinace a locus of control v akademickém prostředí. Pedagogika, 64(4), 383–392.

[32] Rose, J. S., & Medway, F. J. (1981). Measurement of teachers' beliefs in their control over student outcome. Journal of Educational Research, 74(3), 185–189. | DOI 10.1080/00220671.1981.10885308

[33] Rotter, A. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcements. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 80(1), 1–28. | DOI 10.1037/h0092976

[34] Řehulková, J. (2007). Kognitivní styl, studijní styl a místo kontroly osobnosti. Československá psychologie, 51(3), 238–252.

[35] Strelnicki, A. M., Nordstokke, D. W., & Saklofske, D. H. (2015). Who is the successful university student? An analysis of personal resources. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 45(2), 214–228. | DOI 10.47678/cjhe.v45i2.184491

[36] Suárez-Álvarez, J., Pedrosa, I., García-Cueto, E., & Muñiz, J. (2016). Locus of control revisited: development of a new bi-dimensional measure. Anales de Psicología, 32(2), 578–586. | DOI 10.6018/analesps.32.2.200781

[37] Švec, V., & Koláčková, G. (2013). Teoretická východiska problematiky retence vysokoškolských studentů. Aula, 21(2), 56–69.

[38] Toussi, M. T. M., & Ghanizadeh, A. (2012). A study of EFL teachers' locus of control and self-regulation and the moderating role of self-efficacy. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 2(11), 2363–2371.

[39] Trice, A. D. (1985). An academic locus of control scale for college students. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 61(3), 1043–1046. | DOI 10.2466/pms.1985.61.3f.1043

[40] Vašutová, J. (2004). Profese učitele v českém vzdělávacím kontextu. Paido.

[41] Výrost, J. (2002). Od lokalizácie kontroly k vnímanej kontrole. Človek a spoločnosť, 5(3), 39–43.

[42] Walczak, R. B., & Wężowska, J. (2017). Gry fabularne jako sposób zwiększenia kontroli nad rzeczywistością. Poczucie umiejscowienia kontroli oraz emocjonalność graczy w porównaniu do młodzieży niegrającej. Homo Ludens, 1(10), 255–267.

[43] Wolinsky, F. D., Vander Weg, M. W., Martin, R., Unverzagt, F. W., Willis, S. L., Marsiske, M., Rebok, G. W., Morris, J. N., Ball, K. K., & Tennstedt, S. L. (2009). Does cognitive training improve internal locus of control among older adults? Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 65(5), 591–598.

[44] Zemanová, V., & Dolejš, M. (2016). Škála místa kontroly Zemanová a Dolejš (SMKZD) [Unpublished manuscript]. Univerzita Palackého.

[45] Zemanová, V., & Dolejš, M. (2020). Vyhodnocení Škály místa kontroly Zemanová Dolejš [Unpublished manuscript]. Univerzita Palackého.