Title: Vnější označení a sebeoznačení českých nekatolíků v 18. a 19. století
The outward and inner denotations of Czech non-catholics in the 18th and 19th centuries
Source document: Religio. 2002, vol. 10, iss. 2, pp. -236
ISSN1210-3640 (print)2336-4475 (online)
License: Not specified license
The presented study examines the outward and inner denotiations of different non-Catholic religious churches and groups in Bohemia from the so-called Rebellion of Opocen/Opocno (1732), over the Tolerance Decree of Joseph the Second (1781), to the Protestant Decree (1861). At those times denotation played an important role in mutual (self)demarcation of Christian groups, especially in popular religiosity. -- Before the Tolerance Decree was published, persecuted illegal Protestants had been usually denotated as the heretics, the apostates of the Catholic Church, and nobody had deeply tried to comprehend the content of their beliefs. Non-Catholics called themselves, not always accurately, the Evangelics (Czech term for the Protestants), or the Lutherans. The issue of the Tolerance Decree produced a high disorder and dissensions in certain parts of Czech countryside, in which the denotations of religious groups played an important role. Therefore the imperial and church administration tried to establish the term non-Catholics which had less axiological connotations. During the so-called Tolerance period, denotations members of the Church of Augsburg Confession for the Lutherans, and members of the Church of Helvetian Confession for the Calvinists were in use, although in popular terminology non-Catholics (and especially the Calvinists) were usually called the Lambs, with pejorative connotations. Members of illegal sectarian movement in eastern Bohemia, non-Catholics who refused bolh recognized Protestant churches, were designated as religious fanatics by the administration, and as the Adamits, the Arians, the Atheists, the Deists, the Marocans, etc. by people. These denotations were established to suggest an origin and/or an essence of those particular groups, nevertheless this struggle was wrong in all cases. On the other hand, sectarians mostly defined themselves toward the Catholics and Protestants, as the third party.