Alegoria medica en la poesia moral de Gregorio Nacianceno

Source document: Graeco-Latina Brunensia. 2013, vol. 18, iss. 2, pp. [43]-66
Extent
[43]-66
  • ISSN
    1803-7402 (print)
    2336-4424 (online)
Type
Article
Language
Spanish
Greek, Ancient (to 1453)
License: Not specified license
Abstract(s)
The theme of medicine and its reflection in the literary writings of Gregory of Nazianzus has already been scrutinized in his speeches and letters by various authors of whom one may mention A. Harnack, nun M. E. Keenan, H. J. Frings, S. R. Holman, and St. D'Irsay. In the present study, the authors seek to analyze the theme in the poetic works of the author. Gregory of Nazianzus did not approach the theme deliberately; on the contrary, his interest was nourished by the frequent encounters he had with his friends, physicians, as well as by his own brother who was a doctor too. Disease is according to Gregory primarily a mental problem; it arises as a consequence of an improper way of life, disrespectful of the God's plans. Many diseases originate in harmful greed, gluttony and lust for property: acts that logically lead to other corrupt behavior, especially the unlawful enrichment at the expense of the poor. Such a sinful way of life entails grave repercussions: being deprived of all hope of salvation. The only solution to avoid this condition consists, according to Gregory of Nazianzus, in a judicious life lead in moderation, reverence and respect for God. In this regard, the poor offer an example worth following. They do not have to worry about the earthly possessions and therefore they do not suffer from as many diseases as the rich. Even if the theme of medicine itself is present in the poetic works of Gregory mainly as an allusion or a mere reference, its significance in the author's legacy is paramount. Gregory of Nazianzus applies his usual rigor to the treatment of the theme: every aspect of human life is subject to considerations with respect to faith in God, while the Bible serves as the ultimate authority for all acts in one's life and thus for one's very existence. Nevertheless, the author does not only preach such a way of life; he lives up to his own standards.
Téma medicíny a jej odraz v literárnej tvorbe Gregora z Nazianzu bola doposiaľ spracovaná v jeho rečiach a v listoch; spomedzi autorov, ktorí sa témou zaoberali, možno spomenúť A. Harnacka, sestru M. E. Keenanovú, H. J. Fringsa, S. R. Holmanovú, St. D'Irsaya. V prezentovanej štúdii sa autorky usilujú o uchopenie témy v poetickom diele autora. Gregor z Nazianzu sa k analyzovanej téme dostáva prirodzene, nie celkom zámerne, skôr prostredníctvom kontaktov s priateľmi lekármi i vďaka vlastnému bratovi, tiež lekárovi. Chorobu Gregor chápe predovšetkým ako duševný problém. Mnohé z chorôb pramenia z nesprávneho spôsobu života, ktorý nie je v súlade s božími plánmi. Pôvodcami chorôb sú škodlivé obžerstvo, túžba po majetku či lakomstvo, čo logicky vedie k páchaniu ďalších hriechov, najmä k nespravodlivému obohacovaniu sa na chudobných. S uvedenými defektmi súvisia vážne dôsledky, akými sú napríklad život v hriechu a následne zánik možnosti i nádeje pre Božiu spásu. Gregor z Nazianzu ponúka recept, ako sa tomuto stavu vyhnúť. Jediným riešením je striedmy, skromný a rozumný život, rešpekt a úcta k Bohu. Ako nasledovaniahodný príklad uvádza chudobných, ktorí sa nemusia strachovať o majetky, preto netrpia toľkými chorobami ako boháči. Medicína ako taká a zmienky o nej sú v poetickej výpovedi autora prítomné predovšetkým formou alúzií a referencií. Ich význam v odkaze autora je však zásadný. Tak ako vo všetkom, aj v tejto oblasti nazerá Gregor z Nazianzu na každý ľudský problém optikou viery v Boha, podoprenou Bibliou ako absolútnym základom všetkého diania v živote človeka, teda jeho existencie. Túto maximu neodporúča len iným, ale sám žije v súlade s uvedenou myšlienkou.
Document
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