Sedm důvodů pro nemožnost vytvoření univerzální definice života

Variant title
Seven reasons for the impossibility to create a universal definition of life
Source document: Pro-Fil. 2014, vol. 15, iss. Doplňkové číslo, pp. [89]-108
Extent
[89]-108
  • ISSN
    1212-9097
Type: Article
Language
Czech
License: Not specified license
Abstract(s)
Ačkoliv patří život a otázky spojené s jeho definicí k tradičním filozofickým tématům, na počátku jednadvacátého století a po zhruba dvou a půl tisíci letech filozofické tradice není k dispozici uspokojivá definice života. Obtíže spojené s definováním života neprovází pouze filozofii, ale všechny obory, kterých se téma života týká. Příčiny tohoto stavu lze vnímat jako kombinaci několika komplementárně spojených skutečností. V textu jsou uvedeny jako důvody pro nemožnost vytvoření univerzální definice života. Postupně se věnují problematice původu života a postulované hranici mezi živým a neživým, vývoji života a jeho různorodosti, mnohostem přístupů k definování života a neustávajícím objevům nových organismů, filozofické tradici a nejasnosti používaných pojmů, vývoji života jako historickému procesu, kritice definic života z pohledu "jednoho vzorku" a reflexi pojmu život konceptuální analýzou. Zdůrazněny tak jsou filozofická tradice, otázky spojené s životem a jeho vybranými definicemi, aktuální poznatky a výzkumy věnující se životu, stejně tak možný přínos filozofie ke snahám nalézt definici života jako takovou. Východiskem předkládaného textu je naturalismus, fyzikalismus a redukcionismus.
Although life and questions connected with its definition among traditional philosophical topics, at the beginning of the twenty-first century and after roughly two and a half thousand years of philosophical tradition no satisfactory definition of life is at one's disposal. Though difficulties bond up with life definition don't accompany philosophy alone, but also almost all fields touched by this topic. Causes of this state of affairs can be viewed as a combination of several complementary connected facts. Those facts are in the text stated as reasons against the possibility of creating universal definition of life and apply here one by one to the origin of life a postulated boarder line between life and nonlife, evolution of life and its variedness, multiplicity of definitions of life and still going discoveries of new organisms, philosophical tradition and lack of clarity of concepts, evolution of life as a historical process, critique of definitions of life from the point of view of "sample one" and reflection of the concept life by conceptual analysis. Particular sources are about to be analyzed from the point of philosophy of biology with care for philosophical tradition, to questions linked with life and its selected definitions, to actual findings and explorations focused on life and possible contribution of philosophy to the endeavor of finding definition of life as such. Ground of proposed text is naturalism, physicalism and reductionism.
Document
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