New findings about the origin of the Occitan Cathar codex of Lyon and the so-called "Ritual of Lyon"
Source document: Religio. 2016, vol. 24, iss. 2, pp. -217
ISSN1210-3640 (print)2336-4475 (online)
License: Not specified license
This article reconsiders the origin of the codex Lyon, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. PA 36 (also known under the shelf-mark fonds Adamoli, ms. A.I.54), containing an Occitan translation of the New Testament and a Cathar text known as the Ritual of Lyon. Despite scrutinizing the manuscript since the mid-nineteenth century, scholars have fallen short of suggesting convincing arguments concerning its genesis. Building upon earlier linguistic findings and considering internal as well as external evidence, we argue that the codex as well as the Ritual of Lyon are connected with a spirited early-fourteenth-century attempt at restoring Cathar Christianity in Languedoc, headed by Peter Autier. The Ritual of Lyon was clearly produced in a context very similar to the one in which Peter Autier and his companions operated. In contrast with the older Ritual of Florence, it presupposes permanent itinerancy and institutionalises the extension of ritual competences from the ordained ministers to the "elder one" and even to ordinary "good men". Besides such general convergences, there are five quite distinctive parallels connecting the Ritual of Lyon with the circle of Peter Autier: two very specific rules of conduct, one regarding money found when travelling, and the other, a snared animal; a distinctive distributive use of the Occitan word "be" (the good); the insistence on using a tablecloth during the consolamentum; and the use of the word covenesa (i.e. convenensa) in the context of the consolamentum, unknown outside the circle of Peter Autier. These connections indicate that the codex of Lyon is one of those portable Bibles that we know were used by Peter Autier and his companions.
- Tato studie vznikla s podporou grantu Grantové agentury České republiky (projekt č. P401/12/0657 "Prameny ke studiu nesouhlasných náboženských hnutí ve středověkém západním křesťanství se zaměřením na katarství").