Versioni e formae vulgatae degli oracoli di Delfi : alcune note a proposito di Erodoto e dei frammenti di Enomao di Gadara

Variant title
Versions and formae vulgatae of the oracles of Delphi : some notes about Herodotus and the fragments of Oenomaus of Gadara
Source document: Graeco-Latina Brunensia. 2017, vol. 22, iss. 1, pp. 165-190
Extent
165-190
  • ISSN
    1803-7402 (print)
    2336-4424 (online)
Type: Article
Language
Italian
Greek, Ancient (to 1453)
License: Not specified license
Abstract(s)
This paper aims to analyze the relationship between the Histories of Herodotus and the excerpta of the Γοήτων φώρα of Oenomaus of Gadara (II century AD), which constitutes a not yet adequately-studied case in the context of the documentation concerning the oracles of Delphi. The goal is to determine the genesis and the developments of these two literary traditions, rejecting those hermeneutic approaches which connected the main source of Oenomaus to Herodotus. The textual comparison of the versions transmitted by the two authors allows to identify a set of lexical and syntactic differences, mutual lacunae and additions of verses, revealing a distinct appearance of the two oracular traditions in terms of chronology, origin and inclinations.
Document
References:
[1] Collins, J. J. (1983). Sibylline Oracles. Second Century B.C. – Seventh Century A.D. In J. H. Charlesworth (Ed.), The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, Vol. I.: Apocalyptic Literature and Testaments (pp. 317–472). New York: Doubleday.

[2] Colonna, A., & Bevilacqua, F. (Eds.). (1996). Le Storie di Erodoto (Vol. I–II). Torino: Utet.

[3] des Places, É. (Ed.). (1980). Eusèbe de Césarée. La Préparation Évangélique (Livres V.18–36–VI; Sources chrétiennes, 266). Paris: Éditions du Cerf.

[4] Gentili, B., & Prato, C. (1979). Poetae Elegiaci. Testimonia et Fragmenta (Pars prior). Leipzig: Bibliotheca Teubneriana.

[5] Gressmann, H. (Ed.). (1904). Eusebius' Werke, 3.2: Die Theophanie. Die griechischen Bruchstücke und Übersetzung der syrischen Überlieferungen (Die griechischen christlichen Schriftsteller der ersten drei Jahrhunderte, 11.2). Leipzig: Hinrichs.

[6] Hammerstaedt, J. (1988). Die Orakelkritik des Kynikers Oenomaus. Frankfurt am Main: Athenäum.

[7] Legrand, Ph.-E. (Ed.). (1951). Herodotus: Polymnie. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.

[8] Lightfoot, J. L. (2007). The Sibylline Oracles with Introduction, Translation, and Commentary on the First and Second Books. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[9] Meriani, A., & Giannattasio Andria, R. (Eds.). (1998). Vite di Plutarco (Vol. sesto). Torino: Utet.

[10] Migliore, F. (2012). Eusebio di Cesarea. Preparazione Evangelica (Vol. I–III). Roma: Città Nuova.

[11] Monaca, M. (Ed.). (2008). Oracoli sibillini. Roma: Città Nuova.

[12] Mras, K. (Ed.). (1954–1956 [1982]). Eusebius' Werke, 8: Die Praeparatio Evangelica (Die griechischen christlichen Schriftsteller der ersten drei Jahrhunderte, 43.1–2). Berlin: Akademie Verlag.

[13] Mullach, F. G. A. (Ed.). (1867). Fragmenta Philosophorum Graecorum (= FPhG) (Vol. II). Paris: Firmin-Didot.

[14] Nenci, G. (Ed.). (1994). Erodoto. Le Storie. Libro V. La rivolta della Ionia (Fondazione Lorenzo Valla). Milano: Arnoldo Mondadori Editore.

[15] Oldfather, C. H. (Ed.). (1952). Diodorus of Sicily (Vol. III., Books IV.59–VIII). Cambridge (Mass.): Harvard University Press.

[16] Parke, H. W., & Wormell, D. E. W. (1956). The Delphic Oracle, I: The History. Oxford: Blackwell.

[17] Parke, H. W., & Wormell, D. E. W. (1956a). The Delphic Oracle, II: The Oracular Responses. Oxford: Blackwell.

[18] Pini, G. (Ed.). (1985). Clemente Alessandrino. Stromati, note di vera filosofia. Milano: Paoline.

[19] Pontani, F. M. (Ed.). (1981). Antologia Palatina (Vol. quarto, Libri XII–XVI). Torino: Giulio Einaudi Editore.

[20] Zink, O. (Ed.). (1979). Eusèbe de Césarée. La Préparation Évangélique (Livres IV–V, 1–17; Sources chrétiennes, 262). Paris: Éditions du Cerf.

[21] Addey, C. (2014). Divination and Theurgy in Neoplatonism. Oracles of the Gods. Farnham – Burlington (VT): Ashgate.

[22] Asheri, D. (1993). Erodoto e Bacide. Considerazioni sulla fede di Erodoto negli oracoli (Hdt. VIII 77). In M. Sordi (Ed.), La profezia nel mondo antico (pp. 63–76). Milano: CISA.

[23] Attridge, A. H. (1978). Philosophical Critique of Religion under the Early Empire. In H. Temporini (Ed.), Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt (Vol. II, 16.1; pp. 45–78). Berlin – New York: De Gruyter.

[24] Barker, E. (2006). Paging the oracle: interpretation, identity and performance in Herodotus' History. Greece & Rome, 53(1), 1–28.

[25] Bettalli, M. (Ed.). (2001). Introduzione alla storiografia greca. Roma: Carocci.

[26] Bonnechere, P. (2006). La divination apollinienne sous l'Empire. Un dossier opportunément rouvert. Kernos, 19, 447–522.

[27] Brancacci, A. (2000). Libertà e fato in Enomao di Gadara. In A. Brancacci (Ed.), La filosofia in età imperiale. Le scuole e le tradizioni filosofiche ("Elenchos", XXXI; pp. 37–67). Napoli: Bibliopolis.

[28] Brancacci, A. (2001). La polemica antifatalistica di Enomao di Gadara. In A. Brancacci (Ed.), Antichi e moderni nella filosofia di età imperiale: atti del II colloquio internazionale. Roma, 21–23 settembre 2000 (pp. 71–110). Napoli: Bibliopolis.

[29] Busine, A. (2005). Paroles d'Apollon: Practiques et traditions oraculaires dans l'Antiquité tardive (II –VIe siècles). Leiden – Boston: Brill.

[30] Busine, A. (2014). Le problème de l'attribution de textes oraculaires au sanctuaire de Claros. In J.-C. Moretti (Ed.), Le sanctuaire de Claros et son oracle. Actes du colloque international de Lyon, 13–14 Janvier 2012. Lyon: Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée.

[31] Caerols Pérez, J. J. (1991). Los Libros Sibillinos en la Historiografia Latina. Diss. Madrid.

[32] Casanova, A. (2012). Plutarch as Apollo's Priest at Delphi. In L. Roig Lanzillotta, & I. Muñoz Gallarte (Eds.), Plutarch in the Religious and Philosophical Discourse of Late Antiquity (pp. 151–157). Leiden – Boston: Brill.

[33] Cervelli, I. (1993). Questioni sibilline. Studi Storici, 4, 895–1001.

[34] Collins, J. J. (1987). The Development of the Sibylline Tradition. In H. Temporini (Ed.), Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt (Vol. II, 20.1; pp. 421–453). Berlin: De Gruyter.

[35] Crahay, R. (1956). La littérature oraculaire chez Hérodote (pp. 182–207). Paris: Belles Lettres.

[36] Defradas, J. (1954). Les thèmes de la propagande delphique. Paris: Klincksieck.

[37] Dillery, J. (2005). Chresmologues and Manteis: Independent Diviners and the Problem of Authority. In S. I. Johnston, & P. T. Struck (Eds.), Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (pp. 167–231). Leiden: Brill.

[38] Dover, K. (1991). Gli oracoli in Tucidide. In Studi di filologia classica in onore di Giusto Monaco (Vol. I; pp. 303–311). Palermo: Università di Palermo.

[39] Dudley, D. R. (1937). A History of Cynism. From Diogenes to the 6th Century A.D. London: Methuen & Co.

[40] Fehling, D. (1989). Herodotus and his 'sources'. Citation, invention and narrative art (Ed. and transl. J. G. Howie). Leeds: Leeds Latin Seminar.

[41] Fontenrose, J. (1978). The Delphic Oracle. Its Responses and Operations with a Catalogue of Responses. Berkeley – Los Angeles – London: Univ. of California Press.

[42] Fowler, R. L. (1996). Herodotos and his contemporaries. Journal of Hellenic Studies, 116, 62–87. | DOI 10.2307/631956

[43] Gagné, R. (2013). Poétiques de la chrèsmodie. L'oracle de Glaukos (Hérodote, VI, 86). Kernos, 26, 95–109.

[44] Giuliani, A. (2000). Erodoto, Tucidide e gli indovinelli degli indovini. Considerazioni sull'ambiguità del linguaggio oracolare. Aevum, 74, 5–20.

[45] Giuliani, A. (2001). La città e l'oracolo. I rapporti tra Atene e Delfi in età arcaica e classica. (Pubblicazioni dell'Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore). Milano: Vita e Pensiero.

[46] Guida, A. (2000). L'ultimo oracolo di Delfi per Giuliano. In Aa.Vv., Giuliano imperatore: le sue idee, i suoi amici, i suoi avversari. Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Studi, Lecce 10–12 dicembre 1998 (pp. 389–413). Lecce: Brossura.

[47] Hammerstaedt, J. (1993). Le cynisme littéraire à l'époque imperial. In M.-O. Goulet-Cazé, & R. Goulet (Eds.), Le cynisme ancien et ses prolongements. Actes du Colloque International du CNRS, Paris, 22–25 juillet 1991 (pp. 399–418). Paris: P.U.F.

[48] Hammond, N. G. L. (1959). A History of Greece to 322 B.C. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[49] Hartog, F. (1980). Le miroir d'Hérodote. Essai sur la représentation de l'autre. Paris: Gallimard.

[50] Hignett, C. (1963). Xerxes' Invasion of Greece. Oxford: Oxford Clarendon Press.

[51] Inowlocki, S. (2006). Eusebius and the Jewish Authors. His Citation Technique in an Apologetic Context. Leiden – Boston: Brill.

[52] Johnston, S. I. (2008). Ancient Greek Divination. Oxford: Blackwell.

[53] Kindt, J. (2006). Delphic Oracle Stories and the Beginning of Historiography: Herodotus' Croesus Logos. Classical Philology, 101(1), 34–51.

[54] Lamberton, R. (2001). Plutarch. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.

[55] Lange, A. (2006). Literary Prophecy and Oracle Collection: A Comparison between Judah and Greece in Persian Times. In M. Floyd, & R. D. Haak (Eds.), Prophets, Prophecy, and Prophetic Texts in Second Temple Judaism (pp. 248–275). New York – London: T&T Clark International.

[56] Lévy, E. (1997). Devins et oracles chez Hérodote. In J.-G. Heintz (Ed.), Oracles et prophéties dans l'Antiquité, Actes du Colloque de Strasbourg 15–17 juin 1995 (pp. 345–365). Paris: de Boccard.

[57] Luraghi, N. (1994). Erodoto tra storia e fantasia: la parola alla difesa. Quaderni di storia, 40, 181–190.

[58] Maurizio, L. (1993). Delphic Narratives: Recontextualizing the Pythia and her Prophecies. Diss. Stanford University.

[59] Maurizio, L. (1997). Delphic Oracles as Oral Performances: Authenticity and Historical Evidence. Classical Antiquity, 16, 308–334. | DOI 10.2307/25011067

[60] Meyer, E. (1892). Forschungen zur alten Geschichte (Vol. I). Halle: Niemeyer.

[61] Monaca, M. (2005). La Sibilla a Roma: i libri sibillini fra religione e politica. Cosenza: Giordano.

[62] Nagy, G. (1996). Poetry as Performance: Homer and Beyond. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[63] Panitz, H. (1935). Mythos und Orakel bei Herodot. Greifswald: Dallmeyer.

[64] Rainart, G. (2014). La langue de l'Apollon de Delphes: analyse linquistique, poétique et systématique des recueils d'oracles. Université Nice Sophia Antipolis.

[65] Saarmann, Th. (1887). De Oenomao Gadareno. Diss. Tubingae.

[66] Saarmann, Th. (1889). Adnotationes ad Oenomai Cynici fragmenta. Dortmund: Diss. Tubingae.

[67] Sardella, T. (1988). Apollo, Istaspe e la Sibilla: la cristianizzazione degli oracoli pagani da Giustino a Clemente. In Hestíasis. Studi di tarda antichità offerti a Salvatore Calderone (pp. 295–329). Messina: Sicania.

[68] Schwartz, J. (1976). L'historiographie impériale des Oracula Sibyllina. Dialogues d'histoire ancienne, 2, 413–420. | DOI 10.3406/dha.1976.2755

[69] Sfameni Gasparro, G. (1998). La Sibilla voce del dio per pagani, ebrei e cristiani: un modulo profetico al crocevia delle fedi. In I. Chirassi Colombo, & T. Seppilli (Eds.), Sibille e linguaggi oracolari. Mito, storia, tradizione. Atti del Convegno, Macerata – Norcia settembre 1994 (pp. 505–553). Pisa – Roma: Istituti Editoriali e Poligrafici Internazionali.

[70] Sfameni Gasparro, G. (2002). Oracoli Profeti Sibille. Rivelazione e salvezza nel mondo antico. Roma: Libreria Ateneo Salesiano.

[71] Shapiro, H. A. (1990). Oracle-Mongers in Peisistratid Athens. Kernos, 3, 335–345.

[72] Vallette, P. (1908). De Oenomao Cynico. Diss. Paris.

[73] Zamagni, C. (2010). Alexandre Polyhistor et Artapan: une mise en perspective à partir des extraits d'Eusèbe de Césarée. In Ph. Borgeaud, & Th. Römer (Eds.), Interprétations de Moïse. Égypte, Judée, Grèce et Rome (pp. 57–82). Leiden – Boston: Brill.