Interspace: vzdálenost jako kompoziční strategie

Variant title
Interspace: distance as a composition strategy
Source document: Musicologica Brunensia. 2018, vol. 53, iss. 1, pp. 35-50
Extent
35-50
  • ISSN
    1212-0391 (print)
    2336-436X (online)
Type
Article
Language
Czech
License: Not specified license
Abstract(s)
Not many, but some scholars deal with the issue of space in music. Most of them reduce this topic to dislocation of musicians out from the stage or around the public. Does it means that the frontal location of performers on the stage prevent spatial strategies of composer? In my paper I am focusing on spatio-temporal compositional strategies dealing with perception of distance in musical composition placing the sound sources in front of the listener: physical (outer) and structural (inner). Situations includes foreground / background (juxtaposition), depth (perspective) and zooming the source (focusing). Examples are taken from the works of G. Mahler, S. Reich, L. Dallapiccola, M. Górecki, T. Takemitsu, E. Varése, S. Sciarrino, J. Harvey, G. Grisey and O. Messiaen.
Document
References:
[1] AUGOYARD, Jean-François – TORGUE, Henry. Sonic Experience: a Guide to Everyday Sounds . Montreal: McGill-Queens university Press, 2011.

[2] BATES, Enda. The Composition and Performance of Spatial Music [online]. Dublin: Trinity College, 2009. [cit. 2017-10-20]. Dostupné z: http://www.endabates.net/Enda%20Bates%20-%20The%20Composition%20and%20Performance%20of%20Spatial%20Music.pdf.

[3] BERANEK, Leo L. Acoustics . Woodbury NY: Acoustical Society of America, 1996.

[4] BERLIOZ, Hector. Grand traité d'instrumentation et d'orchestration modernes, Op.10 [online]. Paris: Schonenberger, n.d., 1844. [cit. 2017-11-06]. Dostupné z: http://hz.imslp.info/files/imglnks/usimg/8/89/IMSLP88917-PMLP28373-Traite1843ed1c.pdf.

[5] BLOCK, Geoffrey Holden – BURKHOLDER, J. Peter. Charles Ives and the Classical Tradition . New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996.

[6] BORIO, Gianmario – GALLIANO, Luciana (eds.). Musica che affronta il silenzio: scritti su Tōru Takemitsu = Music Facing Up to Silence. Writings on Tōru Takemitsu. Pavia: Pavia University Press, 2010.

[7] BAUMANN, Dorothea. Music and Space A Systematic and Historical Investigation into the Impact of Architectural Acoustics on Performance Practice Followed by a Study of Handel's Messiah . Bern: Peter Lang, 2011.

[8] BRECH, Martha – PALAND, Ralph (eds.). Kompositionen für hörbaren Raum: Die frühe elektroakustische Musik und ihre Kontexte = Compositions for Audible Space: The Early Electroacoustic Music and its Contexts. Bielefeld: transcript Verlag, 2015.

[9] BUNCH, James Denis. A Polyphony of the Mind: Intertextuality in the Music of Salvatore Sciarrino . Urbana, Ill. : University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2016.

[10] C. J. Darwin and R. W. Hukin. Effects of reverberation on spatial, prosodic, and vocal-tract size cues to selective attention [online]. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 2000, 108, 1, s. 335–342. [cit. 2017-10-19]. Dostupné z: http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.429468. | DOI 10.1121/1.429468

[11] CAGE, John. Silence: Lectures and Writings, 50th Anniversary Edition . Middletown: Wesleyan univ press, 2013.

[12] Contemporary Composition Practices . [cit. 2017-10-20]. Dostupné z: http://www.okonsar.com/Documents/ligeti/ligeti.pdf.

[13] Malham, D. C. Approaches to spatialisation [online]. Organized Sound, 3, 2, 1998, s. 167–177. Dostupné z: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S135577189800209X. | DOI 10.1017/S135577189800209X

[14] DEUTSCH, Diana: Psychology and Music . In BORNSTEIN, Marc H. Psychology and Its Allied Disciplines. 3, 3. Hillsdale, NJ [u.a.]: Erlbaum, 1984, s. 155–194.

[15] EMMERSON, Simon. Aural landscape: musical space [online]. Organised Sound. 3, 2, 1998. s. 135–140. [cit. 2017-10-25]. Dostupné z: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355771898002064. | DOI 10.1017/S1355771898002064

[16] GIESELER, Walter - LOMBARDI, Luca – WEYER, Rolf-Dieter. Instrumentation in der Musik des 20. Jahrhunderts . Celle: Moeck, 1985. 331 s. ISBN 978-0-393-09740-5.

[17] GOINES, Lisa – HAGLER, Louis. Noise Pollution: A Modern Plague [online]. Southern Medical Journal. 100, no. 3, 2007. s. 287–294. [cit. 2017-10-28]. Dostupné z: http://www.greencarintegrity.org/Noise_Pollution_A_Modern_Plague.pdf. | DOI 10.1097/SMJ.0b013e3180318be5

[18] GRISEY, Gérard. Tempus ex Machina: A composer's reflections on musical time . Contemporary Music Review, vol. 2. Harwood Academic Publishers GmbH, 1987. s. 239–275. | DOI 10.1080/07494468708567060

[19] HARLEY, Maria Anna. Spatiality of sound and stream segregation in twentieth century instrumental music [online]. Organised Sound, 3, 2, 1998. s. 147–166. | DOI 10.1017/S1355771898002088

[20] HARVEY, Jonathan. Speakings: Programme Notes [online]. 2008. [cit. 2017-10-17]. Dostupné z: http://www.fabermusic.com/repertoire/speakings-5282.

[21] HONEGGER, Arthur. Jsem skladatel. 1. vyd . Bratislava Praha: Supraphon, 1967.

[22] HOŘÍNKA, Slavomír. Barva zvuku a hierarchie v tektonice. Orchestrace jako otevřený proces: sborník studií. 1. díl. Vyd. 1 . Praha: Triga, 2009. 209 s. ISBN 978-80-904266-9-6.

[23] CHENETTE, Jonathan Lee. The Concept of Ma And The Music of Takemitsu [online]. Grinnell College, Grinnell, Ia, 1985. [cit. 2017-10-17]. Dostupné z: http://adminstaff.vassar.edu/jochenette/Takemitsu_essay_Chenette.pdf.

[24] CHERRY, Colin E. Some Experiments on the Recognition of Speech, with One and with Two Ears [online]. Woodbury, NY: American Institute of Physics for the Acoustical Society of America, 1953. [cit. 2017-10-19]. Dostupné z: http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1907229. | DOI 10.1121/1.1907229

[25] KOSTELANETZ, Richard. Conversing with Cage . New York, NY: Routledge, 2003.

[26] LACHENMANN, Helmut – HÄUSLER, Josef. Musik als existentielle Erfahrung: Schriften 1966–1995 . Wiesbaden [u.a.]: Breitkopf & Härtel, 2004.

[27] LEIBOVICH, Nizan. Empty Spaces: Temporal Structures and Timbral Transformations in Gérard Grisey's Modulations and Release For 12 Musicians, An Original Composition . University of Pittsburgh, 2017.

[28] MELKA, Alois. Základy experimentální psychoakustiky. 1. vyd . Praha: Nakladatelství Akademie múzických umění v Praze, 2005. 325 s. ISBN 80-7331-043-0.

[29] MEYER, Jürgen. Akustik und musikalische Aufführungspraxis: leitfaden für Akustiker, Tonmeister, Musiker, Instrumentenbauer und Architekten . Frankfurt am Main: Verlag des Musikinstrument, c.1972.

[30] Miller, James D. Effects of Noise on People [online]. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 56, 1974, s. 729–764. [cit. 2017-10-20]. Dostupné z: http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1903322. | DOI 10.1121/1.1903322

[31] MRKVIČKA, Luboš. Barva a souzvuk. Vyd. 1 . Praha: Triga, 2008. 131 s. ISBN 978-80-904266-1-0.

[32] PÁLKA, Tomáš. Prostor a tektonika v hudební kompozici. Vyd. 1 . Praha: Triga, 2008. 70 s. ISBN 978-80-904266-5-8.

[33] RASTALL, Richard. Spatial Effects in English Instrumental Consort Music, c.1560-1605 [online]. Early Music, 25, 2, s. 269-288. [cit. 2017-10-17]. Dostupné z: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3128521.

[34] RISINGER, Karel. Hierarchie hudebních celků v novodobé evropské hudbě. 1. vyd . Praha: Panton, 1969. 228 s.

[35] RUSSOLO, Luigi. The Art of Noises . New York: Pendragon Pr, 1986.

[36] RYCHLÍK, Jan a kol. Moderní instrumentace: vyšší orchestrační technika jednotlivých hudebních nástrojů. 1. vyd . Praha: Panton, 1968. 685 s.

[37] SCIARRINO, Salvatore. Introduzione all'oscuro: Nota dell'autore [online]. 1996. [cit. 2017-10-17]. Dostupné z: http://www.salvatoresciarrino.eu/Data/Catalogo/Introduzione_all_oscuro.html#dummy.

[38] SCIARRINO, Salvatore. Le figure della musica: da Beethoven a oggi . Milano: Ricordi, 1998.

[39] SCHAFER, Raymond Murray. I Have Never Seen a Sound . Canadian Acoustics – Acoustique Canadienne. 37, no. 3, 2009. s. 32–34.

[40] SCHAFER, Raymond Murray. The Soundscape: Our Sonic Environment and the Tuning of the World . Vermont Rochester: Destiny Books, 1994. 301 s. il. ISBN 0-89281-455-1.

[41] SMALLEY, Denis. Space-Form and the Acousmatic Image . Organised Sound, 2007, roč. 12, č. 01, s. 35–58. | DOI 10.1017/S1355771807001665

[42] STOCKHAUSEN, Karlheinz. How Time Passes . In Musical Craftsmanship. Universal Edition, 1959 (1975).

[43] STRAWN, John. The Intégrales of Edgard Varèse Space, Mass, Element, and Form . Perspectives of New Music, vol. 17, no. 1, 1978, s. 138–160. [cit. 2017-10-17]. Dostupné z: http://www.jstor.org/stable/832662. | DOI 10.2307/832662

[44] SYROVÝ, Václav. Hudební akustika. 3., dopl. vyd . V Praze: Akademie múzických umění, 2013. 440 s. ISBN 978-80-7331-297-8.

[45] ŠPELDA, Antonín. Akustické základy orchestrace. 1. vyd . Praha: Panton, 1967. 201 s.

[46] TAKEMITSU, Toru – KAKUDO, Yoshiko – GLASOW, Glenn. Confronting Silence: Selected Writings . Berkeley, Cal: Fallen Leaf Press, 1995.

[47] THOMPSON, Emily Ann. The Soundscape of Modernity: Architectural Acoustics and the Culture of Listening in America, 1900–1933 . Cambridge, Mass. [u.a.]: MIT Press, 2008.

[48] TROJAN, Jan. Akustická ekologie a soundscape v kontextu médií. 1. vyd . Praha: Triga, 2011. 116 s. ISBN 978-80-904506-4-6.

[49] TRUAX, Barry. Music, Soundscape and Acoustic Sustainability [online]. [cit. 2017-10-28]. Dostupné z: https://www.sfu.ca/~truax/Sustainability.pdf.

[50] TRUAX, Barry. Soundscape Composition As Global Music: Electroacoustic Music As Soundscape . Organised Sound. 13, no. 2, 2008. s. 103–110.

[51] VARÈSE, Edgard – Chou Wen-chung. The Liberation of Sound [online]. Perspectives of New Music, vol. 5, no. 1, 1966, pp. 11–19. [cit. 2017-10-17]. Dostupné z: http://www.jstor.org/stable/832385. | DOI 10.2307/832385

[52] WALLIN, Nils Lennart – MERKER, Björn – BROWN, Steven (eds.). The Origins of Music . Cambridge: MIT Press, 2005.