Etymology and ideology : substratum heritage and the Slavic influence on Romanian

Author: Paliga, Sorin
Source document: Opera Slavica. 2020, vol. 30, iss. 4, pp. 5-22
  • ISSN
    1211-7676 (print)
    2336-4459 (online)
The paper focusses on the influence of ideological (political) issues on linguistic studies, specifically on the long debated issue of substratum heritage of Romanian. Though often downplayed, the ideological (in most cases political) dimension of humanistic studies is obvious, and it explains some of the approaches to history and, in our case, to historical linguistics that one observes. The general situation is described through some case studies. In the second half of the 19th century, the field was dominated by the outstanding personality of Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu. After his death, there was no significant approach to the complex and difficult problems related to the substratum of Romanian, or to other problems in comparative analyses. No consistent and coherent approach to these issues emerged until the late 1960's, i.e. almost a century later! Between 1969, when the first relevant analysis was published, and the 1980's, when most such studies were published, little of value appeared, despite the volume of material published. Their results were more amateurish than reliable. Though the study of the substratum heritage it is often associated with extreme nationalism or other forms of political extremism ('extreme right' or 'extreme left' or whatever), including those recent variants labelled 'thracomania' or 'dacomania' and other amateurish approaches to the topic, the problem of Romanian's substratum heritage is nonetheless a complex, difficult and fascinating one. It will continue to present a challenge as long as there is no consensus among linguists. Substratum influence has more often been underestimated than exaggerated; the number of substratum elements seems to be considerably higher than the currently accepted 200 hundred words, a total that seems to have been uncritically copy-pasted from one author to another. This paper tries to give a new impetus to research in the field. The author has discussed other aspects of the field elsewhere.
[1] BICHIR, G.: Cultura carpică . Bucureşti: Editura Academiei, 1973.

[2] BICHIR, G.: Dacii liberi din Muntenia şi relaţiile lor cu romanii . Thraco-dacica 2, 1981, pp. 73–92.

[3] BICHIR, G.: Geto-dacii din Muntenia în epoca romană . Bucureşti: Editura Academiei, 1984.

[4] BICHIR, G.: Ramura nordică a dacilor—costobocii . Thraco-dacica 4, 1–2, 1983, pp. 59–68.

[5] BLAŽEVIĆ, Z.: SRPSKI ilirizam prije ILIRIZMA: NACIONALNO-IDENTIFIKACIJSKI modeli u historiografskim djelima grofa ĐORĐA BRANKOVIĆA (1645–1711) . Književna istorija 44, 146, 2012, pp. 23–39. ISSN 0350-6428.

[6] BOERESCU, P.: Elementele de substrat (autohtone) ale limbii române. Compendiu . București: Editura Academiei Române, 2018. ISBN 978-973-27-2969-4.

[7] BONFANTE, G.: Studii române . București: Saeculum I. O., 2001. ISBN 973-9399-83-5.

[8] BRÂNCUŞ, G.: Cercetări asupra fondului traco-dac al limbii române . București: Institutul Român de Tracologie, Bibliotheca Thracologica VIII, 1995.

[9] BRÂNCUŞ, G.: Concordanțe lingvistice româno-albaneze . București: Institutul Român de Tracologie, Bibliotheca Thracologica XXX, 1999.

[10] BRÂNCUŞ, G.: Vocabularul autohton al limbii române . Bucureşti: Editura Știinţifică şi Enciclopedică, 1983.

[11] CANDREA, I.-A., DENSUSIANU, O.: Dicţionarul etimologic al limbii române. Elementele latine (a-putea) . Bucureşti: Socec, 1914.

[12] CIHAC, A.: Dictionnaire étymologique daco-romane, I–II , 1870–1879. Frankfurt.

[13] CIORĂNESCU, A.: Dicționarul etimologic al limbii române . București: Saeculum I.O., 2002. ISBN 973-9399-86-X.

[14] COTEANU, I., SECHE, L., SECHE, M. (eds.) Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române (DEX) . Bucureşti: Editura Academiei, 1975.

[15] Dacomania sau cum mai falsificãm istoria . [online]. [cit. 29-10-2020].

[16] Dicționar explicativ al limbii române . [online]. [cit. 28-10-2020].

[17] Enda – Carpica . [online]. [cit. 28-10-2020].

[18] HASDEU, B. P.: Scrieri istorice, I–II . Bucureşti: Albatros, 1973.

[19] HASDEU, B. P.: Studii de lingvistică şi filologie . Ed. by Gr. Brâncuş, 2 vols. Bucureşti: Minerva, 1988.

[20] Muzeul Hasdeu . [online]. [cit. 28-10-2020].

[21] IONESCU, A. I.: Pavel Josef Šafařík și slavistica românească . București: Oscar Print, 2017. ISBN 978-973-668-459-3.

[22] IVĂNESCU, G.: Istoria limbii române . Iaşi: Junimea, 1980.

[23] PALIGA, S.: Este boieria o instituţie împrumutată? Revista Arhivelor 67, vol. 52, 3, 1990, pp. 250–260. ISSN 1453-1755.

[24] PALIGA, S.: Slovansko *sъto – izzivalen problem? (in Slovene with an English abstract: Slavic *sъto — a challenging problem?) . Slavistična Revija (Ljubljana) 36, 4, 1988, pp. 349–358. ISSN 0350–6894.

[25] PALIGA, S.: The Albanian Ethnogenesis, an 'Enigma'? A brief answer to Genc Lafe . In honorem Dagmar Maria Anoca. Ed. by Antoaneta Olteanu. București: Editura Universității București, 2016, pp. 303–316. ISBN 978-606-16-0755-6.

[26] PALIGA, S.: Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu: první lingvista a slavista v Rumunsku (Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu: the first linguist and slavist in Romania) . Literature and Social Change: a Voyage Through the History of Slavic Studies. Proceedings of the International Symposium Literature and Slavic Studies held by the Commission for the History of Slavic Studies at Comenius University in Bratislava on the 12th and 13th of April 2016. Edited by Ľubor Matejko. Bratislava: Univerzita Komenského, 2017, pp. 131–140. ISBN 978-80-971479-3-8.

[27] PHILIPPIDE, A.: Originea românilor (the origin of the Romanians), vols. I–II. Iaşi, 1923–1928.

[28] POGHIRC, C.: B. P. Hasdeu, lingvist şi filolog . Bucureşti: Ed. Științifică, 1968.

[29] POGHIRC, C.: Influenţa autohtonă , in Rosetti et alii (ed.), Istoria limbii române, 2 vols., 1965–1969, vol. 2, pp. 313–364.

[30] PUŞCARIU, S.: Limba română . Bucureşti: Minerva, 1976. 1st ed.: Bucureşti 1940.

[31] RĂDULESCU, M. M.: Daco-Romanian-Baltic Common Lexical Elements . Ponto-Baltica 1 (Editrice Nagard), 1981, pp. 15–113.

[32] RĂDULESCU, M. M.: Illyrian, Thracian, Daco-Mysian, the substratum of Romanian . The Journal of Indo-European Studies 12, 1–2, 1984, pp. 77–131. ISSN 0092-2323.

[33] RĂDULESCU, M. M.: The Indo-European Position of Illyrian, Daco-Mysian and Thracian . The Journal of Indo-European Studies 15, 1987, pp. 239–271. ISSN 0092-2323.

[34] RAEVSKIJ, N. D., GABINSKIJ, M. (eds.): Scurt dicţionar etimologic al limbii moldoveneşti . Chişinău: Redacţia Enciclopediei Sovietice Moldoveneşti, 1978.

[35] ROSETTI, A.: Istoria limbii române , fully revised, final edition. Bucureşti: Editura Științifică şi Enciclopedică, 1986 (with several previous editions).

[36] RUSSU, I. I.: Etnogeneza românilor . Bucureşti: Editura Științifică și Enciclopedică, 1981.

[37] RUSSU, I. I.: Obîrșia tracică a românilor și albanezilor. (Clarificări comparativ-istorice și etnologice). Der thrakische Ursprung der Rumänen und Albanesen. (Komparativ-historische und ethnologische Klärungen) . Romanian-German bilingual edition, translated by Konrad Gündisch. Cluj-Napoca: Dacia, 1995. ISBN 973-350-4823.

[38] SIMENSCHY, T., IVĂNESCU, G.: Gramatica comparată a limbilor indo-europene . Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică, 1981.

[39] SKOK, P.: Slavenstvo i romanstvo na jadranskim otocima. Toponomastička ispitivanja . Zagreb: Jugoslavenska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti, 1950.

[40] VINEREANU, M.: Dicționarul etimologic al limbii române . București: Alcor, 2008. ISBN 978-973-816-0347.

[41] VRACIU, A.: Limba daco-geţilor . Timişoara: Facla, 1980.