English discourse markers in mediatised political interviews

Zdrojový dokument: Brno studies in English. 2014, roč. 40, č. 1, s. [45]-64
Rozsah
[45]-64
  • ISSN
    0524-6881 (print)
    1805-0867 (online)
Type: Článek
Jazyk
anglicky
Licence: Neurčená licence
Abstrakt(y)
The present case study takes a discourse-pragmatic approach to some of the most frequently used discourse markers (henceforth DMs) in spoken English: I mean, of course, oh, well, I think and you know. The point of departure in this research is a set of discourse-pragmatic relations and functions, such as conversation management, thematic control, concession, elaboration, reformulation, ventriloquizing, and marking evidentiality. After looking at which DMs signal these relations and functions in our corpora, we identify a set of English DMs whose members display markedly different pragmatic behaviours across various subgenres of spoken English such as naturally-occurring conversations and mediatised political interviews. We examine their use in a corpus of political interviews broadcast in English by the BBC and CNN between 2003 and 2011, and compare our results with previous research, performed on the basis of spontaneous, everyday conversations. Our paper has a threefold goal: (1) to present examples of the various discourse-organizing roles and strategic uses of the DMs; (2) to discuss the differences between the selected English DMs' functions across different subgenres of spoken English discourse; and (3) to answer whether or not the uses of the selected discourse markers differ across the various discourse types/genres (spoken English vs. different types of political interviews).
Document
Reference:
[1] Aijmer, Karin (1997) "I think – An English modal particle". In: Swan, Toril and Olaf J. Westvik (eds.) Modality in Germanic Languages. Historical and Comparative Perspectives. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1–47.

[2] Aijmer, Karin and Anne-Marie Simon-Vandenbergen (2009) "Pragmatic Markers". In: Östman, Jan-Ola and Jef Verschueren (eds.) Handbook of Pragmatics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

[3] Bakhtin, Mikhail (1987) The Dialogic Imagination: 4 Essays. Austin: University of Texas Press.

[4] Blakemore, Diane (1992) Understanding Utterances. An Introduction to Pragmatics. Oxford: Blackwell.

[5] Chafe, Wallace (1986) "Evidentiality in English conversation and academic writing". In: Chafe, Wallace and Johanna Nichols (eds.) Evidentiality: The Linguistic Coding of Epistemology. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 261–272.

[6] Chafe, Wallace. (1994) Discourse, Consciousness, and Time: The Flow and Displacement of Conscious Experience in Speaking and Writing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

[7] Crystal, David and Derek Davy (1975) Advanced Conversational English. London: Longman.

[8] Csűry, István (2011) "A forgatókönyv mint elméleti kategória és kommunikációs eseménytípus multimodális megközelítésben". In: Németh T. Enikő (ed.): Ember-gép kapcsolat. A multimodális ember-gép kommunikáció modellezésének alapjai. Segédkönyvek a nyelvészet tanulmányozásához 133. Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 145–178

[9] Fetzer, Anita (2000) "Negotiating validity claims in political interviews". Text 20 (4), 1–46.

[10] Fetzer, Anita (2008) "Theme zones in contrast: An analysis of their linguistic realization in the communicative act of non-acceptance". In: Gómez-González, Maria de los Ángeles, J. Lachlan Mackenzie and Elsa M. González Álvarez (eds.) Languages and Cultures in Contrast and Comparison. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 3–32.

[11] Fetzer, Anita and Elda Weizman (2006) "Political Discourse as Mediated and Public Discourse". Journal of Pragmatics 38, 143–153. | DOI 10.1016/j.pragma.2005.06.014

[12] Fraser, Bruce (1996) "Pragmatic markers". Pragmatics 6, 167–190. | DOI 10.1075/prag.6.2.03fra

[13] Fraser, Bruce (1999) "What are discourse markers?" Journal of Pragmatics 31, 931–952. | DOI 10.1016/S0378-2166(98)00101-5

[14] Fraser, Bruce (2009) "Topic orientation markers". Journal of Pragmatics 41, 892–898. | DOI 10.1016/j.pragma.2008.08.006

[15] Furkó, Bálint Péter (2007) "The status of of course as a discourse marker". In: Balogné Bérces, K., Földváry, Kinga and Rita Mészárosné Kóris (eds.) Proceedings of the HUSSE10 Conference. HUSSE10-Linx. Debrecen: Hungarian Society for the Study of English, 95–106. http://husse-esse.hu/wp-content/2007/04/furko-peter-of-course-as-a-dm.doc (accessed on 27 September 2011)

[16] Goffman, Erving (1981) Forms of Talk. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania

[17] González, Montserrat (2004) Pragmatic Markers in Oral Narrative – the Case of English and Catalan. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

[18] Halliday, Michael A. K. and Ruqaya Hasan (1976) Cohesion in English. London: Longman.

[19] Heritage, John (2002) "Oh-prefaced responses to assessments: a method of modifying agreement/disagreement". In: Ford, Cecilia, Barbara Fox and Sandra Thompson (eds.) The Language of Turn and Sequence. New York: Oxford University Press, 196–224.

[20] Heritage, John and David L. Greatbatch (1991) "On the institutional character of institutional talk: the case of news interviews". In: Deirdre, Boden and Donald H. Zimmerman (eds.) Talk and Social Structure: Studies in Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis. Berkley: University of California Press, 93–137.

[21] Holmes, Janet (1988) "Of course: a pragmatic particle in New Zealand women's and men's speech". Australian Journal of Linguistics 2, 49–74. | DOI 10.1080/07268608808599391

[22] Holmes, Janet (1990) "Hedges and boosters in women's and men's speech". Language and Communication 10, 185–205. | DOI 10.1016/0271-5309(90)90002-S

[23] Jucker, Andreas H. and Sara W. Smith (1998) "And people just you know like 'wow': Discourse markers as negotiating strategies". In: Jucker, Andreas H. and Yael Ziv (eds.) Discourse Markers: Descriptions and Theory. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 171–203.

[24] Lauerbach, Gerda (2006) "Discourse representation in political interviews: The construction of identities and relations through voicing and ventriloquizing". Journal of Pragmatics 38, 196–215. | DOI 10.1016/j.pragma.2005.06.015

[25] Lauerbach, Gerda (2007) "Argumentation in Political Talk Show Interviews". Journal of Pragmatics 39, 1388–1419. | DOI 10.1016/j.pragma.2007.04.004

[26] Lenk, Uta (1998) "Discourse markers and global coherence in conversation". Journal of Pragmatics 30, 245–257. | DOI 10.1016/S0378-2166(98)00027-7

[27] Lewis, Diane (2006) "Discourse markers in English: a discourse-pragmatic view". In: Fischer, Kerstin (ed.) Approaches to Discourse Particles. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 43–59.

[28] O'Barr, William and Bowman Atkins (1980) "'Women's language' or 'powerless language'". In: McConnell-Ginet, Sally, Ruth Borker and Nelly Furman (eds.) Women and Language in Literature and Society. New York: Praeger, 93–110.

[29] Östman, Jan-Ola (1995) "Pragmatic particles twenty years after". In Wårvik, Brita, Sanna-Kaisa Tanskanen and Risto Hiltunen (eds.) Organization in discourse. Proceedings from the Turku Conference. Turku: University of Turku, 95–108.

[30] Petukhova, Volha and Harry C. Bunt (2009) "Towards a multidimensional semantics of discourse markers in spoken dialogue”. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computational Semantics. Tilburg, 157–168.

[31] Redeker, Gisela (1991) "Linguistic markers of discourse structure". Linguistics 29, 1139–1172.

[32] Redeker, Gisela (2006) "Discourse markers as attentional cues at discourse transitions". In: Fischer, Kerstin (ed.) Approaches to discourse particles. Oxford: Elsevier, 339–358.

[33] Sacks, Harvey (1992) Lectures on Conversation. Oxford: Blackwell.

[34] Saz Rubio, Maria Milagros del (2007) English Discourse Markers of Reformulation. Bern: Peter Lang.

[35] Schegloff, Emanuel (1972) "Notes on a Conversational Practice: Formulating Place". In: Sudnow, David N. (ed.) Studies in Social Interaction. New York: Free Press, 75–119.

[36] Schiffrin, Deborah (1987) Discourse Markers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[37] Schourup, Lawrence (1985) Common Discourse Particles in English Conversation. New York: Garland.

[38] Simon-Vandenbergen, Anne-Marie (1988) "What really really means in casual conversation and in political interviews". Linguistica Antverpiensia 22, 206–225.

[39] Simon-Vandenbergen, Anne-Marie (1992) "The interactional utility of of course in spoken discourse". Occasional Papers in Systemic Linguistics 6, 213–226.

[40] Simon-Vandenbergen, Anne-Marie and Karin Aijmer (2002/03) "The expectation marker 'of course'". Languages in Contrast 4, 13–43. | DOI 10.1075/lic.4.1.03sim

[41] Simon-Vandenbergen, Anne-Marie, Peter R.R. White and Karin Aijmer (2007) "Presupposition and 'taking-for-granted' in mass communicated political argument: An illustration from British, Flemish and Swedish political colloquy". In: Fetzer, Anita and Gerda E. Lauerbach (eds.) Political Discourse in the Media. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 31–75.

[42] Sperber, Dan and Wilson, Deirdre (1986/1995) Relevance: Communication and Cognition. 2nd edition. Oxford: Blackwell.

[43] Stenström, Anna-Brita (1990) "Lexical items peculiar to spoken discourse". In: Svartvik, Jan (ed.) The London-Lund Corpus of Spoken English: Description and Research. Lund: Lund University Press, 137–175.

[44] Stenström, Anna-Brita (1994) An Introduction to Spoken Interaction. London and New York: Longman.

[45] Swan, Michael (1997) Practical English Usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[46] Tannen, Deborah (2010) "Abduction in family interaction: Ventriloquizing as indirectness". Journal of Pragmatics 42, 307–316. | DOI 10.1016/j.pragma.2009.06.002

[47] White, Peter (2000) "Dialogue and inter-subjectivity: reinterpreting the semantics of modality and hedging". In: Coulthard, Malcolm, Janet Cotterill and Francis Rock (eds.) Dialogue Analysis VII: Working with Dialogue. Selected Papers from the 7th International Association of Dialogue Analysis Conference. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 67–80.

[48] Wichmann, Anne, Anne-Marie Simon-Vandenbergen and Karin Aijmer (2010) "How prosody reflects semantic change: A synchronic case study of of course". In: Davidse, Kristin, Lieven Vandelanotte and Hubert Cuyckens (eds.) Subjectification, Intersubjectification and Grammaticalization. Berlin and NY: De Gruyter Mouton, 103–155.

[49] Zovko, Ivana (2012) "Analysis of discourse markers in the Interviews with presidents of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the U.S.A.". In: 2nd International Conference on Foreign Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (FLTAL'12). Sarajevo.