Polysémie et jeu de mot dans la littérature tamoule ancienne : mode d'mploi préliminaire

Název: Polysémie et jeu de mot dans la littérature tamoule ancienne : mode d'mploi préliminaire
Zdrojový dokument: Études romanes de Brno. 2014, roč. 35, č. 2, s. [167]-181
  • ISSN
    1803-7399 (print)
    2336-4416 (online)
Type: Článek
Licence: Neurčená licence

Upozornění: Tyto citace jsou generovány automaticky. Nemusí být zcela správně podle citačních pravidel.

In what we have of ancient Tamil literature (and notably its sizeable devotional component) a pervasive feature is the repetition of some sequences of phones and this results in the highly visible alliterative quality of that literature, the most frequently seen device being the second syllable rhyme which is called /etukai/ (Skt. /dvitīya-anuprāsa/). Repetitions of word-size sequences of phones are also seen, although much less frequently (not to talk about the exceptional repetition of line-size sequences) and a striking example is seen in four hymns composed by Campantar, one of the three /Tēvāram/ authors, who probably lived in the 7th century. Those four hymns were called "/yamaka/" by posterity, and every line in them follows an AZBZ pattern, where the Z sequences correspond either to two homophonous words or to two distinct meanings of a polysemic word, another possibility being punning, in which case one of the Zs is not a full word, but a proper substring of a word, formally identical with the other Z, a full word. As an illustration of this literary device, this article contains a detailed examination of the manner in which word-play is performed in one stanza taken from Tēvāram 3–113, gradually translated here, by progressive steps, so as to preserve the didactic (or initiatic, or hypnotic) effect, which the stanza may have had on the śaiva devotees who exercised themselves in singing it. This is followed by an outline of the /kōśa/-s "thesauri", which were probably composed slightly later in Tamil Nadu, originally in order to help the students of ancient Tamil literature in overcoming the difficulties inherent in the intensive use of polysemy and quasi-synonymy. Those /kōśa/-s could also provide weapons to aspirant poets, desirous of displaying their virtuosity in word-play.
[1] APPĀCĀMI ŌTUVAMURTTI, I. Tēvārap paṇ cura amaippu [iraṇṭām patippu], ti ṭiriṉiṭi miyusik puk papḷiṣars. Chennai, [1928] 2005.

[2] ARDEN, A.H. A Progressive Grammar of the Tamil Language. Madras: The Christian Literature Society, 1976.

[3] BARNOUD-SETHUPATHY, Elisabeth. Le chant du Tēvāram dans les temples du pays tamoul. Thèse de doctorat (non publiée). Université de la Sorbonne Nouvelle (Paris-3), 1994.

[4] BRITTO, Francis. Diglossia: a study of the theory with application to Tamil. Georgetown University Press, 1986.

[5] CAṆMUKAM PIḶḶAI, Mu. ; CUNTARAMŪRTTI, I. (patippāciriyarkaḷ). Tivākaram, 2 vol. Chennai : Ceṉṉaip Palkalaik Kaḻakam, 1990–1993.

[6] CHEVILLARD, Jean-Luc (1996), Le commentaire de Cēṉāvaraiyar sur le Collatikāram du Tolkāppiyam, Publication du Département d'Indologie N°84–1, Institut Français de Pondichéry & École française d'Extrême-Orient, 637 p.

[7] CHEVILLARD, Jean-Luc. Metres in Tamil Bhakti Literature and the Problem of their (occasional) Description in Treatises (Studies in Tamil Metrics-2). In Mapping the Chronology of Bhakti: Milestones, Stepping Stones and Stumbling Stones. E 124, 2014 (sous presse), 39–96. Institut Français de Pondichéry & École française d'Extrême-Orient, Collection Indologie – 124, 2014 (sous presse), 39–96.

[8] CHEVILLARD, Jean-Luc. Examining verbal forms inside the Tēvāram, in the light of the vocabulary found inside the 9th chapter of Cēntaṉ Tivākaram. In TAMIḺ IṆAIYA MĀNĀṬU, 2010, KŌVAI, JŪṈ 23–27, KAṬṬURAIKAḶ [Proceedings of the INFITT 2010 conference, Coimbatore, India], 2010a, 147–154.

[9] CHEVILLARD, Jean-Luc. 'Rare words' in classical Tamil literature: from the Uriyiyal to the Tivākaram. ACTA ORIENTALIA, 2010b, 63, 3, 301–317.

[10] GAIR, James W. Sinhala Focused Sentences: Naturalization of a Calque. In Studies in South Asian Linguistics. Sinhala and Other South Asian Languages. (Selected writings by James W. Gair). Ed. Barbara C. LUST. New York-Oxford: Oxford University Press, [1985] 1998, 155–169.

[11] GERSCHHEIMER, Gerdi. Les "Six doctrines de spéculation" (ṣaṭṭarkī). Sur la catégorisation variable des systèmes philosophiques dans l'Inde Classique. In Expanding and Merging Horizons : Contributions to South Asian and Cross-cultural Studies in Commemoration of Wilhelm Halbfass. Ed. Karin PREISENDANZ. Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. 2007, 239–258.

[12] GOPAL IYER, T.V. [Kōpālaiyar, Ti. Vē.] Mūvar Tēvāram (vol. 1, Ñāṉacampantar). Publications de l'Institut Français d'Indologie (PIFI), 1984, 68, 1.

[13] GOPAL IYER, T.V. [Kōpālaiyar, Ti. Vē.] Mūvar Tēvāram (vol. 2, Appar and Cuntarar), Publications de l'Institut Français d'Indologie (PIFI) 1985, 68, 2.

[14] GOPAL IYER, T.V. [Kōpālaiyar, Ti. Vē.] Tēvāram, Āyvuttuṇai (Tēvāram, Etudes et glossaires tamouls). Publications de l'Institut Français d'Indologie (PIFI) 1991, 68, 3.

[15] GROS, François. Towards reading the Tēvāram / Pour lire le Tēvāram. In Mūvar Tēvāram (vol. 1, Ñāṉacampantar). Publications de l'Institut Français d'Indologie (PIFI), 1984, 68, 1, pp. xxxvii-lxviii and pp. v-xxxvi.

[16] HÜLLEN, Werner. A History of Roget's Thesaurus, Origins, Development and design. Oxford- New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

[17] IRĀMANĀTAṈ, Es. Tēvārap paṇ icai, Kalaimakaḷ Icaik Kallūri, Chennai, 1970. [photographic reproduction by The Carnatic Music Book center, Chennai]

[18] KNUTH, Donald, E. The Stanford GraphBase. A Platform for Combinatorial Computing, Boston: Addison-Wesley, 1993.

[19] KNUTH, Donald, E., The Art of Computer Programming, Volume 3. Sorting and searching. 2nd ed. Boston: Addison-Wesley, 1998.

[20] LINDHOLM, James M. Cleft Sentences in Tamil and Malayalam. In Proceedings of the First All India Conference of Dravidian Linguists. Ed. V. I. SUBRAMONIAM. Trivandrum: Dravidian Linguistics Association of India, 1972, 297–306,

[21] MTL = Madras Tamil Lexicon. Ed. S. VAIYAPURI PILLAI. , Chennai : University of Madras, 1982 [1924–36, 1939].

[22] NIKLAS, Ulrike. Amitacākarar iyaṟṟiya Yāpparuṅkalakkārikai Kuṇacākarar iyaṟṟiya uraiyuṭaṉ. Text, translation and notes. Pondichéry : Institut Français de Pondichéry, Publications du département d'Indologie N° 79, 1993.

[23] Piṅkalantai eṉṉum Piṅkala Nikaṇṭu, 1968, Kaḻaka Veḷiyīṭu 1315, Tirunelvēli Teṉṉintiya Caivacittānta Nūṟpatippuk Kaḻakam, Chennai.

[24] Ramanathan : voir Irāmanātaṉ.

[25] SUBRAMANYA AIYAR, V.M. ; CHEVILLARD, Jean-Luc ; SARMA, S.A.S. Digital Tēvāram. Kaṇiṉit Tēvāram. Collection Indologie n° 103, IFP / EFEO [CD-ROM] 2007.

[26] Tolkāppiyam, Poruḷatikāram, (third book of T), with Iḷampūraṇar's commentary. [l'édition utilisée ici est l'édition de 2003 publiée par le Tamiḻ Maṇ Patippakam, Chennai, les patippāciriyar étant Ti. Vē. Kōpālaiyar et Na. Araṇamuṟuval]

[27] UTHAYA, Veluppillai. Cīkāḻi: Hymnes, héros, histoire. Rayonnement d'un lieu saint shivaïte au Pays Tamoul. Thèse de doctorat (non publiée). Université Sorbonne Nouvelle – Paris 3, 2013.