Název: Two Byzantine capitals "with pine cones at their corners" and their monograms : technical, stylistic, and historical observations
Dvě byzantské hlavice "s borovými šiškami v rozích" a jejich monogramy : poznámky k technice, stylu a historii
Zdrojový dokument: Convivium. 2022, roč. 9, č. Supplementum 2, s. -137
ISSN2336-3452 (print)2336-808X (online)
Licence: Neurčená licence
plný text nepřístupný
The "basket" capital has been recognized as one of the most brilliant innovations of Byzantine architecture in the first half of the sixth century. Its numerous variations, all developed during the reigns of the emperors Justin i (518–527) and Justinian i (527–565), prove the high technical and artistic level achieved by the workshops of sculptors active in Constantinople in those decades. New data for the knowledge of the basket capitals "with pine cones at their corners" are offered by the study of two specimens in an English private collection. In particular, metrological analysis of these capitals and close examination of their surfaces made it possible to reconstruct all the working stages, from the roughing of the blocks (of Proconnesian marble) to the finishing of details. In addition, the marks left by the tools provided essential clues to identify various aspects of the organization of work on the construction site, where architectural elements of this type were finished and installed. Finally, the presence of a "cruciform" monogram in Greek letters engraved on the main face of the two capitals helps to establish their chronology and to identify the possible patron. The nature of the monogram, without a ruler's name but mentioning the name of a likely member of the court, suggests specific historical circumstances that resulted in the wide adoption of this type of monogram as a decorative element in Byzantine architectural sculpture of the sixth century.