Indonesians do not believe in lying : new results of replicating Coleman and Kay's study

Název: Indonesians do not believe in lying : new results of replicating Coleman and Kay's study
Autor: Adha, Ahmad
Zdrojový dokument: Pro-Fil. 2020, roč. 21, č. 1, s. 11-23
  • ISSN
    1212-9097 (online)
Type: Článek
Licence: Neurčená licence

Upozornění: Tyto citace jsou generovány automaticky. Nemusí být zcela správně podle citačních pravidel.

For most people, a lie would be defined solely as a false statement. However, many philosophers argue that a statement does not need to be false to be considered a lie, what is important is that the speaker believes that the statement is false. In a prototype semantic analysis, there are three elements of a lie, namely factual falsity, belief, and intention (Coleman and Kay, 1981). As in the case of philosophers' arguments, English, Spanish, Arabic and Hungarian speakers consider belief as the main element of a prototypical lie. By replicating Coleman and Kay's study of Indonesian speakers, the present paper tries to answer the following research questions. (1) Does the Indonesian word bohong 'lie' consist of the Coleman & Kay's prototype elements? (2) If it does, what is the order of the elements? (3) Do Indonesians interpret the situation in which a lie occurs similarly to speakers of other languages? And (4) how to interpret the results of this experiment from the philosophical perspective? The results reveal that not all elements suggested by Coleman and Kay (1981) are present in lying according to Indonesians and the factuality of the statement is more important to Indonesians than belief. Thus, Indonesians have a perception of a lie that is different from the definitions suggested by the philosophers.
[1] Brown, P. (2002): Everyone has to lie in Tzeltal, in Blum-Kulka, S. – Snow, C. (eds.) Talking to Adults, Erlbaum, 541–275.

[2] Carson, T. L. (2010): Lying and Deception: Theory and Practice, Oxford University Press.

[3] Chen, R. – Hu, C. – He L. (2013): Lying between English and Chinese: An intercultural comparative study, Intercultural Pragmatics 10(3), 375–401, available at: < >. | DOI 10.1515/ip-2013-0017

[4] Cole, S. (1996): Semantic prototype and the pragmatics of lie across cultures, The LACUS Forum 23, 475–483.

[5] Coleman, L. – Kay, P. (1981): Prototype semantics: the English word lie, Language 57(1), 26–44, available at: < >. | DOI 10.1353/lan.1981.0002

[6] Danziger, E. (2010): On trying and lying: Cultural configurations of Grice's Maxim of Quality, Intercultural Pragmatics 7(2), 199–219, available at: < >. | DOI 10.1515/iprg.2010.010

[7] Dynel, M. (2018): Irony, Deception and Humour, De Gruyter Mouton.

[8] Eichelberger, J. (2012): A semantic and pragmatic analysis of the Spanish word lie: Implications and applications for the second language learner, [master thesis], Baylor University.

[9] Fallis, D. (2012): Lying as a violation of Grice's first maxim of quality, Dialectica 66(4), 563–581, available at: < >. | DOI 10.1111/1746-8361.12007

[10] Grice, P. (1975): Studies in the Way of Words, Harvard University Press.

[11] Hall, E. (1976): Beyond Culture, Anchor Press/Doubleday.

[12] Hardin, K. (2010): The Spanish notion of Lie: Revisiting Coleman and Kay, Journal of Pragmatics 42(12), 3199–3213, available at: < >. | DOI 10.1016/j.pragma.2010.07.006

[13] Lackey, J. (2013): Lies and deception: An unhappy divorce, Analysis 73(2), 236–248, < >. | DOI 10.1093/analys/ant006

[14] Leal, S. – Vrij, A. – Vernham, Z. – Dalton, G. – Jupe, L. – Harvey, A. – Nahari, G. (2018): Cross-cultural verbal deception, The British Psychological Society 23(2), 192–213, available at: < >. | DOI 10.1111/lcrp.12131

[15] Mahon, J. (2008): Two definitions of lying, International Journal of Applied Philosophy 22(2), 211–230, available at: < >. | DOI 10.5840/ijap200822216

[16] Mahon, J. (2015): The definition of lying and deception, in Zalta, E. (ed.) The Standford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, available at: < >.

[17] Sorensen, R. (2007): Bald-faced lies! Lying without the intent to deceive, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 88(2), 251–264, available at: < >. | DOI 10.1111/j.1468-0114.2007.00290.x

[18] Turri, A. – Turri, J. (2015): The truth about lying, Cognition 138, 161–168, available at: < >. | DOI 10.1016/j.cognition.2015.01.007

[19] Vajtai, A. (2013): The Hungarian notion of lying: a study based on the Prototype Approach of Coleman and Kay, [master thesis], Szeged University.