Původ boha Sarápida v Egyptě

Název: Původ boha Sarápida v Egyptě
Variantní název
The origin of Sarapis in Egypt
Zdrojový dokument: Sacra. 2013, roč. 11, č. 2, s. 7-20
  • ISSN
    1214-5351 (print)
    2336-4483 (online)
Type: Článek
Licence: Neurčená licence
At the turn of the 20th century the subject of an origin of the god Sarapis raised a vivid discussion among scholars. The figure of the god Sarapis had suddenly emerged in a cultural context of hellenistic Egypt and until 4th century BC had not played a part in any known myth. In the 4th century BC there were documented only few references. However, in the 3rd century BC the god Sarapis became popular across the Hellenistic world. Many scholars discussed the origin of the god Sarapis but the number of available literary sources is very limited. Moreover, available sources often contradict each other in the question of the origin of the deity. The discussion about the origin of the god Sarapis is open and researchers still have not reached a consensus. This paper surveys the research of the origin of the god Sarapis, verifies individual research hypotheses and offers a new working hypothesis of the origin of the god Sarapis.
[1] Arriános, Tažení Alexandra Velikého. Přel. J. Bělský (1972). Praha: Svoboda.

[2] Curtius Rufus, Quintus, Historiarum Alexandri Magni Macedonis libri qui supersunt. Ed. E. Hedicke (1908). Lipsiae: B. G. Teubner.

[3] Cyril Alexandrijský, Adversus Iulianum I.13. Přel. J. Stambaugh. In J. Stambaugh (1972), Sarapis Under the Early Ptolemies (pp. 3–4). Leiden: Brill.

[4] Diodóros Sicilský, Library of History I, VIII, IX. Přel. C. Oldfather, C. Welles & R. Geer (1933)–1963). London: Harvard University Press.

[5] Eustathios ze Soluně, Dionysius Periegetes. Přel. G. Bernhardy (1828). Lipsiae: G. Reimer.

[6] Hérodotos, Dějiny. Přel. J. Šonka (2004). Praha: Academia.

[7] Kléméns Alexandrijský, Clement of Alexandria (Protrepticus). Přel. G. Butterworth ()1919)). London: William Heinemann.

[8] Kléméns Alexandrijský, Stromata I, Přel. J. Plátová (2004). Praha: Oikumené.

[9] Macrobius, Macrobius: Saturnalia (Vol. I: Books 1–2). Přel. R. Kaster (2011). London: Harvard University Press.

[10] Manéthó, Manetho. Přel. W. Waddell (1940). London: William Heinemann.

[11] Ovidius, Proměny. Přel. I. Bureš (2005). Praha: Plot.

[12] Pausaniás, Cesta po Řecku I – II. Přel. H. Businská (1973–1974). Praha: Svoboda.

[13] Plútarchos, Moralia. Přel. F. Babbitt (1936). London: William Heinemann.

[14] Plútarchos, Životopisy slavných Řeků a Římanů I–II (2nd ed.). Přel. V. Bahník et al. (2007). Praha: Arista.

[15] Rowlandson, J. (Ed.) (1998). Women and Society in Greek and Roman Egypt: A Sourcebook. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[16] Strabón, The Geography of Strabo I – III. Přel. H. Hamilton (1903). London: George Bell.

[17] Tacitus, Publius Cornelius, Z dějin císařského Říma. Přel. A. Minařík, A. Hartmann a V. Bahník (1976). Praha: Svoboda.

[18] The Romance of Alexander the Great by Pseudo-Callisthenes. Ed. A. Wolohojian (1969). London: Columbia University Press.

[19] Bommas, M. (2005). Heiligtum und Mysterium Griechenland und seine ägyptischen Gottheiten. Mainz am Rhein: von Zabern.

[20] Borgeaud, P. & Volokhine, Y. (2000). La formation de la légende de Sarapis: une approche transculturelle. Archiv für Religionsgeschichte, (2), 37–76. | DOI 10.1515/9783110234183.37

[21] Braun, T. (1982). The Greeks in Egypt. In J. Boardman & N. Hammond (Eds.), The Cambridge Ancient History III/3: The Expansion of the Greek World, Eighth to Sixth Centuries B. C.(2nded., pp. 32–56). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[22] Bricault, L. (2007). Fonder un lieu de culte. Mediterranea, (4), 49–64.

[23] Bunson, M. (2002). Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt (Rev. ed.). New York: Facts on File.

[24] Callender, G. (2010). Renesance Střední říše (asi 2055–1650 př. Kr.). In I. Shaw (Ed.), Dějiny Starověkého Egypta (2nd ed., pp. 164–199). Praha: BB/Art.

[25] David, R. (2003). Handbook to Life in Ancient Egypt (2nd ed.). New York: Facts On File.

[26] Ellis, W. (1994). Ptolemy of Egypt. London: Routledge.

[27] Fraser, P. (1967). Current Problems Concerning the Early History of the Cult of Sarapis. Opuscula Atheniensia, (7), 23–45.

[28] Fraser, P. (1972). Ptolemaic Alexandria. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

[29] Fraser, P. (1960). Two Studies on the Cult of Sarapis in the Hellenistic world. Opuscula Atheniensia, (3), 1–54.

[30] Harris, W. & Ruffini, G. (2004). Ancient Alexandria between Egypt and Greece. Boston: Brill.

[31] Heever, G. van den (2005). Novel and Mystery: Discourse, Myth, and Society. In J. Brant, C. Hedrick & C. Shea (Eds.), Ancient Fiction: The Matrix of Early Christian Narrative (pp. 89–114). Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature.

[32] Jones, M. & Jones, A. (1982). The Apis House Project at Mit Rahinah: First Season 1982. Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, (19), 51–58. | DOI 10.2307/40000433

[33] Łajtar, A. (2012). The Theban Region under the Roman Empire. In C. Riggs (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of Roman Egypt (pp. 171–188). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[34] Lloyd, A. (2011). From Satrapy to Hellenistic kingdom: The Case of Egypt. In A. Erskine & L. Llewellyn-Jones (Eds.), Creating a Hellenistic World(pp. 83–105). Swansea: The Classical Press of Wales.

[35] Lloyd, A. (2010). Ptolemaiovská doba (332–30 př. Kr.). In I. Shaw (Ed.), Dějiny Starověkého Egypta (2nd ed., 409–435). Praha: BB/Art.

[36] Magie, D. (1953). Egyptian Deities in Asia Minor in Inscriptions and on Coins. American Journal of Archaeology, 57(3), 163–187. | DOI 10.2307/500057

[37] Málek, J. (2010). Stará říše (asi 2686–2125 př. Kr.). In: I. Shaw (Ed.), Dějiny Starověkého Egypta (2nd ed., pp. 105–133). Praha: BB/Art.

[38] Martin, Luther H. (1997). Helénistická náboženství. Brno: Masarykova Univerzita 1997.

[39] Masson, O. (1977). Quelques Bronzes Égyptiens à Inscription Grecque. Revue d'Egyptologie, (29), 53–67.

[40] Merkelbach, R. (1977). Die Quellen des griechischen Alexanderromans (2nd ed.). München: C. H. Beck.

[41] Mojsov, B. (2005). Osiris: Death and Afterlife of a God. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

[42] Moyer, I. (2011). Egypt and the Limits of Hellenism. New York: Cambridge University Press.

[43] Nicholls, R. & Martin, G. (1979). The Tomb of Hetepka, and Other Reliefs and Inscriptions from the Sacred Animal Necropolis, North Saqqara, 1964–1973, London: Egypt Exploration Society.

[44] Osing, J. (1980). Königsnovelle. In W. Helck, E. Otto & W. Westendorf (Eds.), Lexikon der Ägyptologie III (pp. 556–557). Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.

[45] Peacock, D. (2010). Římská doba (30 př. Kr. – 311 po Kr.). In I. Shaw (Ed.), Dějiny starověkého Egypta (2nd ed., pp. 436–459). Praha: BB/Art.

[46] Pfeiffer, S. (2008). The God Serapis, his Cult and the Beginnings of the Ruler Cult in Ptolemaic Egypt. In P. McKechnie & P.Guillaume (Eds.), Ptolemy II Philadelphus and His World (pp. 387–454). Boston: Brill.

[47] Ray, J. (2002). Reflections of Osiris: Lives from Ancient Egypt. New York: Oxford University Press.

[48] Samuel, A. (1986). The Earliest Elements in the Alexander Romance. Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, 35(4), 427–437.

[49] Shaw, I. & Nicholson, P. (2002). The British Museum Dictionary of Ancient Egypt (3rd ed.). London: British Museum Press.

[50] Stambaugh, J. E. (1972). Sarapis Under the Early Ptolemies. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

[51] Stoneman, R. (2001). Alexander the Great. (2nd ed.). Taylor and Francis e-Library: Routledge.

[52] Thompson, D. (1988). Memphis under the Ptolemies. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

[53] Thompson, D. (2009). The Multilingual Environment of Persian and Ptolemaic Egypt: Egyptian, Aramaic, and Greek Documentation. In R. Bagnall (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Papyrology (pp. 395–417), Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[54] Welles, C. (1962). The Discovery of Sarapis and the Foundation of Alexandria. Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, 11(3), 271–298.

[55] Wilcken, U. (1927). Urkunden der Ptolemäerzeit I: (ältere Funde). Berlin: de Gruyter.

[56] Wilkinson, R. (2003). The complete gods and goddesses of ancient Egypt. New York: Thames and Hudson.