K výzkumu výměny hudebnin mezi hrabětem z Questenbergu a jeho aristokratickými přáteli

Variantní název
Notes on the investigation of sheet music exchange between Count Questenberg and his aristocratic friends
Zdrojový dokument: Musicologica Brunensia. 2014, roč. 49, č. 2, s. [29]-51
Rozsah
[29]-51
  • ISSN
    1212-0391 (print)
    2336-436X (online)
Type: Článek
Jazyk
česky
Licence: Neurčená licence
Abstrakt(y)
The importance of Count Johann Adam Questenberg for musical culture in Central Europe lies mainly in his acquiring and providing of music, especially opera scores. This issue is very broad and not sufficiently explored yet, especially given the fragmentation, lack or incompleteness of sources; particularly striking is the small degree to which his correspondence with numerous European aristocrats has been investigated. -- Information from Questenberg sources clearly illustrate the fact that the relations among music-loving aristocracy in Central Europe and the related movements of sheet music were very intense. The paper focuses attention on Questenberg's aristocratic friends and acquaintances who served as significant sources for obtaining copies of scores or even printed librettos for him. This issue was partially opened in the author's earlier works, especially in her book František Antonín Míča in the Service of Count Questenberg and the Italian Opera in Jaroměřice (Praha: KLP, 2011). In the present study, however, the topic is dealt with more comprehensively, using mainly previously unpublished quotes from the letters of Questenberg's Vienna Hofmeister Georg Adam Hoffmann from the years 1729–1740, which are currently stored at the Moravian Provincial Archive. Questenberg's music-loving friends from aristocratic circles of imperial Vienna included a leading scholar Conrad Adolph von Albrecht and a number of members of the Althann noble family. His contacts in the field of music are documented primarily with Count Michael Johann von Althann, but Questenberg also knew Michael Friedrich von Althann, who was the viceroy of Naples. He apparently secured copies of several opera scores in Naples for him, like some other nobles holding this post (Alois Thomas Raimund Count Harrach and Giulio Visconti Borromeo Arese, with whom Questenberg was in touch as well). -- Other Viennese nobles with whom Questenberg shared sheet music included Count Emanuel Michael von Starhemberg, Count Salaburg, Count Auersperg ad., Questenberg's documented musical contacts from the Styria region include Johann Ernst, the provincial governor, Count von Herberstein, and Count Ignaz Maria von Attems-Heiligenkreuz. Some aristocrats who lived in rent in Questenberg's palace in Vienna at Johannesgasse also procured scores for him (e.g. Countess Coronini or Duke de Lanti). -- Of the members of the Hungarian aristocracy, Questenberg's contacts with the Archbishop of Esztergom and the Primate of Hungary Emmerich Esterházy de Galántha are known. Questenberg received at least two oratorio librettos from Esterházy, authored by Friedrich Sebastian Syhn, engaged in the service of the archbishop. Syhn's libretto was set to music by Joahnn Matthias Schenauer, and a year after the premiere in Pressburg, František Antonín Míča (1729, 1730) wrote a composition to the same text. Questenberg's ownership of at least one piece of sheet music previously owned by Prince Paul Anton von Esterházy has also been documented. -- Count Questenberg was also in touch with German aristocrats; envoys in Vienna sometimes served as mediators delivering the sheet music (e.g. envoys from Munich, Nuremberg). Correspondence and other sources document exchange of music and librettos with Anton Ulrich, Duke von Sachsen-Meiningen, who lived in Vienna for long stretches of time. -- It is also known that the earl was trading sheet music with Malta, namely with the Knights of Malta. The contact was presumably mediated by the Spanish diplomat Earl Joaquin Fernando Almenara, the viceroy of Naples for a time, and a member of the Order of Malta. -- Questenberg had numerous contacts in aristocratic society in Prague, which undoubtedly dated back to his legal studies at the Charles-Ferdinand University. His circle of music-loving friends and acquaintances included mainly Joseph Franz von und Würben Freudenthal, Johan Anton von Losy Losynthal, Johann Hubert Hartig and Franz Anton Sporck. A copy of the oratorio Sant'Elena al Calvario by Antonio Caldara was donated by Questenberg to the Knights of the Cross in Prague. -- Over time, Questenberg's contacts with the aristocrats who had their estates in Moravia intensified significantly. Aristocratic art-loving society in Moravia was quite homogeneous; in the winter, they stayed mostly in Brno, the seat of the provincial authorities, while in the summer and fall, they visited each other at their premises for various pastimes. Opera, staged in Brno by the Italian impresario Angelo Mingotti since 1732 (from 1733 in the newly built opera house in today's Zelný Trh) was a common denominator of the Moravian music-loving aristocracy. -- Art-related contacts of Count Questenberg with the Moravian nobility took place on many levels. Some nobles performed in comedies and operas staged in Jaroměřice: Maria Maximiliana Wilhelmine, daughter of Znojmo Governor Carl Joseph de Souches, Baron Johann Nepomuk Podstatzky, Joseph von Guyard, Count von Saint-Julien, Count Johann Nepomuk Ugarte (a nephew of Franz Anton Schrattenbach, the Bishop of Olomouc), Count Konstantin Joachim Gatterburg, and members of the Kaunitz family: Wenzel – future chancellor to Empress Marie Therese – and his siblings Maria Ludwig and Eleonore, and others. Gatterburg borrowed musicians from Questenberg at least in 1745, and it can be assumed that Questenberg provided his artists to help in this way more often. Productions of numerous musical dramas, especially by František Antonín Míča in Brno and Olomouc, were also very significant for the dissemination of music staged by Count Questenberg. -- Some Míča's works were owned by Johann Matthias Thurn and Vallsassiny, the Olomouc canon and provost of the Brno chapter, and are stored in the inventory of Collalt's Brtnice, which also contains compositions by Questenberg's second home composer, Carl Müller. -- Questenberg sources reveal rather little of his specific contacts and exchanges of sheet music with the nobles who had their seats in Moravia. The same applies to Czech and Moravian members of the ecclesiastic aristocracy. This is probably because he often dealt with them in person, so the information did not find its way to Hoffmann's letters or to correspondence with his administrators. One of the exceptions is Josepha von Stomm, daughter of Baron Franz Joseph Stomm, who acquired at least one opera score for Questenberg. -- Despite not entirely satisfactory treatment of this broad issue, it is evident from these examples that the "network" of aristocratic friends from whom Earl Questenberg obtained information about music and especially sheet music (mainly opera scores) was indeed very wide. In the future, it will be necessary to better map the impact of musical life in Questenberg's Jaroměřice on other Moravian sites. Possibilities include relations with the nobles owning estates near Jaroměřice, with whom the Count demonstrably associated. These include, in addition to some of the abovementioned (Gatterburg, St. Julien, members of the Kaunitz family), for example Baron Joseph Ignaz von Kotulinsky von Kotulin, who owned Tavíkovice estate, Countess Waldorf née Bořitová from Sádek u Třebíče, or Count Franz Wenzel von Wallis from Moravské Budějovice. It will also be necessary to investigate Questenberg's contacts with aristocratic bureaucracy linked to Brno. The guideline for research will be the names of aristocrats in the dedications in printed librettos from the Brno City Opera, headed by Questenberg's longtime friend and later father-in-law, provincial governor Maxmilian Ulrich von Kaunitz. Questenberg's relations with Blížkovice, Nové Syrovice, Hodonín, and with the monasteries in Louka, Nová Říše, Žďár nad Sázavou and Hradiště u Znojma, or other locations, also come into consideration.
Note
  • Studie vznikla s finanční podporou Grantového fondu děkana Filozofické fakulty MU pro rok 2014.
Document
Reference:
[1] AT-OeStA/AVA FA Harrach Fam. in spec 573.17.

[2] MZA, fond G 436, inv. č. 6133, kart. 747–748.

[3] MZA, fond G 436, inv. č. 6224, kart. 775.

[4] MZA, fond G 436, inv. č. 6187, kart. 766–767.

[5] MZA, fond G 436, inv. č. 6366, kart. 780.

[6] MZA, fond F 460, inv. č. 9730, kart. 2425.

[7] MZA, fond F 460, inv. č. 9734, kart. 2426.

[8] MZA, fond F 460, inv. č. 9746, kart. 2430.

[9] BENNETT, Lawrence. A Little-Known Collection of Early Eighteenth-Century Vocal Music at Schloss Elisabethenburg, Meiningen. Fontes artis musicae, 2001, roč. 48, č. 3, s. 250–302.

[10] BERKOVEC, Jiří. Podněty V. Helferta v oblasti bádání o staré opeře, zejména na scéně sporckovské a vratislavské. In Vladimír Helfert v českém a evropském kontextu: hudebněvědná konference k 100. výročí narození pokrokového vědce a člověka (Brno 27.–28. února 1986). Rudolf Pečman (ed.). Brno: Svaz českých skladatelů a koncertních umělců, 1987, s. 49.

[11] BOHADLO, Stanislav. Questenberg a Sporck – oddělené a nezávislé barokní hudební subkultury na Moravě a v Čechách? Musicologica Brunensia, 2011, roč. 46, , č. 1–2, s. 15–34.

[12] BOHADLO, Stanislav. Antonio Denzio. In Theater in Böhmen, Mähren und Schlesien. Von den Anfängen bis zum Ausgang des 18. Jahrhunderts. Ein Lexikon. Alena Jakubcová – Matthias J. Pernerstorfer (eds.). Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften – Praha: Institut umění – Divadelní ústav, 2013, s. 146–151.

[13] FREEMAN, Daniel E. The Opera Theater of Count Franz Anton von Sporck in Prague. New York: Pendragon Press, 1992.

[14] GOLTZ, Maren. Die Wiener Libretti–Sammlung des Herzog Anton Ulrich von Sachsen–Meiningen [online]. 2008-10-16. [cit. 2011–09-05]. Dostupné z: http://www.db-thueringen.de/servlets/DerivateServlet/Derivate-15722/libretti-sammlung.pdf>.

[15] HAVLÍČKOVÁ, Margita. Profesionální divadlo v královském městě Brně 1668 až 1733 [= Acta musicologica et theatrologica, 16], Brno: Janáčkova akademie múzických umění v Brně, 2009.

[16] HELFERT, Vladimír. Hudební barok na českých zámcích. Jaroměřice za hraběte Jana Adama z Questenberku. Praha: Česká akademie císaře Františka Josefa pro vědy, slovesnost a umění 1916.

[17] JONÁŠOVÁ, Milada. I Denzio: tre generazioni di musicisti a Venezia e a Praga. Hudební věda, 2008, roč. 45, č. 1–2 , s. 57–114.

[18] KAČIC, Ladislav. Joseph Umstatt (1711–1762) zwischen Barock und Klassik: Bemerkungen zur Stilentwicklung eines mitteleuropäischen Komponisten. In Zur Geschichte und Aufführungspraxis der Musik des 16.–18. Jahrhunderts in Mittel- und Osteuropa. Gerold W. Gruber (ed.). Bratislava: Music Forum, 2013, s. 201–215.

[19] KAČIC, Ladislav. Schuldramen und Oratorien bei den Preßburger Jesuiten im 18. Jahrhundert. Musicologica Brunensia, roč. 49, 2014, č. 1, 275–290. | DOI 10.5817/MB2014-1-17

[20] KADICH, Heinrich von – BLAŽEK, Konrad. Der Mährische Adel. Nürnberg: Bauer & Raspe, 1899, s. 152–153.

[21] KAPSA, Václav. Hudebníci Václava Morzina. Příspěvek k dějinám šlechtických kapel v Čechách v době baroka. S tematickými katalogy instrumentální tvorby Antonína Reichenauera, Christiana Gottlieba Postela a Františka Jiránka. Praha: Etnologický ústav Akademie věd České republiky, 2010.

[22] KAPSA, Václav – MÁDL, Claire. Weiss, the Hartigs and the Prague Music Academy – Research into the 'profound silence' left by a 'pope of music'. Journal of the Lute Society of America, 2000, [2004], roč. 33, s. 47–86.

[23] KÖCHEL, Ludwig Ritter von. Johann Joseph Fux. Hofcompositor und Hofkapellmeister der Kaiser Leopold I., Joseph I. und Karl VI. Von 1698 bis 1740, Wien: Hölder, 1872.

[24] KUBEŠ, Jiří. "Votre Excellence est trop philosophe". Pobyt Františka Antonína Šporka u císařského dvora v roce 1727. Theatrum historiae, 2011, roč. 6, č. 9, s. 36n.

[25] LEUPOLD, Karl Friedrich Benjamin. Allgemeines Adelsarchiv der österreichischen Monarchie [...], Bd. 1. Wien: Hoffmeister, 1789, s. 50.

[26] PERUTKOVÁ, Jana. František Antonín Míča ve službách hraběte Questenberga a italská opera v Jaroměřicích. Praha: KLP, 2011.

[27] PERUTKOVÁ, Jana. Giulio Cesare in Egitto am Wiener Kärntnertortheater im Jahre 1731. Ein Beitrag zur Rezeption der Werke von G. F. Händel in der Habsburgermonarchie in der 1. Hälfte des 18. Jahrhunderts. Hudební věda, 2012, roč. 49, č. 1–2, s. 95–122.

[28] PERUTKOVÁ, Jana. Moravská hudbymilovná aristokracie v 1. polovině 18. století a její vztah ke světským hudebně dramatickým produkcím. Opus musicum 2013, roč. 45, č. 3, s. 6–12.

[29] PERUTKOVÁ, Jana. Die von Questenbergschen Musikern aufgeführten Oratorien in Mähren in der 1. Hälfte des 18. Jahrhunderts. Musicologica Brunensia, roč. 49, 2014, č. 1, s. 163–174. | DOI 10.5817/MB2014-1-10

[30] PLICHTA, Alois: Jaroměřicko. Dějiny Jaroměřic nad Rokytnou a okolí, svazek I. Třebíč: Arca JiMfa, 1994.

[31] ROMAGNOLI, Angela. "Una musica grandiosa". Italská chrámová hudba 17. a 18. století v českých Fondech. In Baroko v Itálii – baroko v Čechách. Setkávání osobností, idejí a uměleckých forem. Vilém Herold – Jaroslav Pánek (eds.). Praha: Filosofia, 2003, s. 227–302.

[32] SARTORI, Claudio. I libretti italiani a stampa dalle origini al 1800. Catalogo analitico con 16 indici. Cuneo: Bertola & Locatelli, 1990–1994.

[33] SEHNAL, Jiří. Nové příspěvky k dějinám hudby na Moravě v 17. a 18. století. ČMorMus, 1975, roč. 60, č. 2, s. 367–389.

[34] SEHNAL, Jiří. Die adeligen Musikkapellen im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert in Mähren. In Studies in Music History Presented to H. C. Robbins Landon on His 70th Birthday. Otto Biba – David Wyn Jones (eds.). London: Thames & Hudson 1996, s. 195–218, 265–270.

[35] SEHNAL, Jiří. Deníky Jana Jáchyma ze Žerotína. Životní styl českého šlechtice v době vrcholného baroka. Časopis matice moravské, 2000, roč. 119, č. 2, s. 367–389.

[36] SCHÜTZ, Philipp Balthasar Sinold von. Die europäische Fama, welche den gegenwärtigen Zustand [...]. Leipzig: Gleditsch, 1731, s. 783.

[37] SPÁČILOVÁ, Jana. Unbekannte Brünner Oratorien Neapolitanischer Komponisten vor 1740. Musicologica Brunensia, 2014, roč. 49, č. 1, 137–161. | DOI 10.5817/MB2014-1-9

[38] TERAMO, Sonia. Gaetano Martinelli e la serenata alla corte di Lisbona. In La serenata tra Seicento e Settecento: musica, poesia, scenotecnica. Nicolò Maccavino (ed.). Reggio Calabria: Laruffa Editore, 2007, s. 666.

[39] TROJAN, Jan. František Václav (Antonín) Míča (1694–1744). Naším krajem, 1991, roč. 4, č. 5, s. 24.

[40] UMSTATT, Joseph. Concerti per Violino. Ladislav Kačic (ed.), Bratislava: Vysoká škola múzických umení, 2013.

[41] VOKÁČOVÁ, Petra. Příběhy o hrdé pokoře. Aristokracie českých zemí a císařský dvůr v době vrcholného baroka. Disertační práce, Brno: FF MU, 2007.