Informační strategie boje proti dezinformaci: přehledová studie vlivných technologických společností po prezidentských volbách v USA v roce 2016

Variantní název
Information strategy in the war against disinformation: survey of influential technology companies after the presidential elections in the USA in 2016
Autor: Ulrich, Petr
Zdrojový dokument: ProInflow. 2018, roč. 10, č. 2, s. 23-51
Rozsah
23-51
  • ISSN
    1804-2406 (online)
Type: Článek
Jazyk
česky
Licence: CC BY 3.0 CZ
Abstrakt(y)
Účel – Prudký rozvoj informačních technologií spolu se sociálními sítěmi vytvořil bezprecedentní prostředí, ve kterém jsou dezinformace a s nimi spojované informační operace povýšeny na velmi účinné a devastující zbraně hromadného ničení. Účelově vedená dezinformační kampaň v kyberprostoru již dnes dokáže ovlivnit výsledky demokratických voleb na úrovni světové velmoci. Jedná se proto o velmi závažné celospolečenské téma a problém, u kterého dosud neexistuje účinná obrana. Naším cílem je zmapovat aktuální přístupy boje proti dezinformaci z pohledu provozovatele technologických platforem, které jsou pro šíření dezinformace zneužívány, a navrhnout jednoduchý kategorizační model obranných informačních strategií. Design/metodologie/přístup – Hlavní otázkou, kterou si klademe, je, jak vlivné technologické společnosti ve svých procesech, nástrojích a vizích dalšího produktového směřování reagovaly na událost prezidentských voleb v USA v roce 2016. Svou pozornost zúžíme pouze na oblast sociálních sítí a sledované období uzavřeme březnem 2018. Tato teoretická práce bude založena na následujících metodických postupech: a) Dokumentová analýza primárních zdrojů publikovaných jednotlivými sledovanými technologickými společnostmi. b) Mediální analýza zpravodajských zdrojů, které situaci komentují jak z pohledu informační strategie, tak i z pohledu různých sociokulturně-politických "spouštěčů". Výsledky – Na základě analýzy sledovaných technologických společností a sociokulturně-politických "spouštěčů" jsme stanovili základní kategorizaci informačních strategií boje proti dezinformaci a promítli ji do první verze funkčního modelu, jaký dosud ještě nebyl pro tuto potřebu vytvořen. Z dílčích strategií se jako nejnosnější prokázala strategie postavená na automatizovaných fact-checking systémech s podporou umělé inteligence. Originalita/hodnota – Mediátorům obsahu, tedy vydavatelům a jejich redakcím, je již v současnosti věnováno mnoho pozornosti v řadě studií a analýz, které navazují na rozsáhlý historický výzkum v oblasti vývoje médií a komunikace. Na druhou stranu rovina informační strategie provozovatele komunikační platformy, na kterou se v naší analýze zaměřujeme, je v tomto kontextu online světa novou a dosud nepříliš probádanou oblastí, která přináší nové otázky a výzvy s ohledem na řízení těchto platforem z perspektivy oborů informačního managementu a informační politiky.
Purpose – The rapid development of information technologies with social networks has created an unprecedented environment in which disinformation and related information operations are recognized as very effective and devastating weapons of mass destruction. A purpose-driven disinformation campaign in cyberspace is able to influence results of democratic elections at the level of the world superpower. This is a very serious social issue and a problem for which there is no effective defense yet. Our objective is to map current approaches to combating disinformation from the viewpoint of technology platform operators whose platforms are misused to spread misinformation and suggest a simple classification model of defensive information strategies. Design/methodology/approach – Focus is laid on how influential technology companies reacted to the landmark of the US presidential elections in 2016 in their processes, strategy and product visions. Our attention is limited to the area of social networks and limited by March 2018. This theoretical work is based on the following methodological approaches: a) Document analyses of primary sources published by individual companies being monitored. b) Media analyses of news sources covering situation from an information strategy viewpoint as well as the socio-cultural political context and triggers associated with this phenomenon. Results – Based on the analyses of selected technology companies and socio-cultural political triggers we have defined a simple classification of information strategies for combating disinformation in online platforms. With this classification we derived a first version of a functional model, that hadn’t existed before. Strategy based on automated fact-checking systems with the support of artificial intelligence proofed to be the most vital. Originality/value – Content mediators, publishers and their editors, have already received a significant amount of attention in many studies and analysis following a vast historical research in the area of media and communication. On the other hand, the view of the information strategy of a communications platform operator, which we are focusing on in our work, is in this context of the online world a new and still not very well researched area that brings new questions and challenges regarding the platform management from the perspectives of information management and information policy.
Document
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