Un fer de lance sanskrit en pays tamoul : vēl et polysémie iconique

Název: Un fer de lance sanskrit en pays tamoul : vēl et polysémie iconique
Zdrojový dokument: Études romanes de Brno. 2014, roč. 35, č. 2, s. [183]-210
  • ISSN
    1803-7399 (print)
    2336-4416 (online)
Type: Článek
Licence: Neurčená licence

Upozornění: Tyto citace jsou generovány automaticky. Nemusí být zcela správně podle citačních pravidel.

This article brings to light the participation of Visual tradition to the enrichment of the semantic range of two terms. One is Tamil, vēl, the other Sanskrit, śakti. Both are used to designate the attribute of the emblematic divinity of southern India, Skanda-Murukaṉ. Understood as a kind of "spear", vēl and śakti are represented as a lightning in the sculptural tradition that has appeared in the 8th century in South India. In the world of texts, the meaning of lightning appears distinctly in the iconographic texts written in Sanskrit. What about Tamil literature? It is here proposed that the lightning is also alluded to in texts of the most ancient Tamil literature (Caṅkam). Taking into account the iconographic data allows to consider the polysemy of a Tamil term and locate the neosemantism induced by the rivalry between three deities, Indra, Śiva and Skanda-Murukaṉ, as well as by the encounter of two literary traditions.
[1] Aiṅkuṟunūṟu. Mūlamum Uraiyum. Ed. Catāciva AIYAR. Cheṉṉai: Institute of International Institute of Tamil Studies, 1999.

[2] BROCQUET, Sylvain. Les inscriptions sanskrites des Pallava : poésie, rituel, idéologie. Diffusion Septentrion, 1997.

[3] BROWN, Charles Philip. A Telugu-English dictionary. 2nd ed. Madras: Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1903.

[4] CLOTHEY, Fred W. The many Faces of Murukaṉ: The History and Meaning of a South Indian God. The Hague-Paris-New York: Mouton, 1978.

[5] BURROW, Thomas; EMENAU, Murray Barnson. A Dravidian Etymological Dictionary. Delhi : Munshiram Mahoharlal, 1958.

[6] FILLIOZAT, Jean. Un texte de la religion Kaumāra, le Tirumurukāṟṟuppaṭai. Pondichéry: Institut Français de Pondichéry, Publications de l'Institut Français d'Indologie, n° 49, 1973.

[7] GROS, François. Le Paripāṭaḷ. Texte tamouḷ. Introduction, traduction et notes. Pondichéry: Institut Français d'Indologie, Publications de l'Institut Français d'Indologie, n° 35, 1968.

[8] HART, George Luzerne; HEIFETZ, Hank. The Puṟanāṉūṟu, Four Hundred Songs of War and Wisdom, An Anthology of Poems from Classical Tamil. New Delhi: Penguin Books India, 2002.

[9] L'HERNAULT, Françoise. L'iconographie de Subrahmaṇya au Tamilnad. Pondichéry: Institut Français d'Indologie, Publications de l'Institut Français d'Indologie, n° 59, 1978.

[10] Kalittokai. Maturaiyāciriyar Pārattuvāsi Nacciṉārkkiṉiyar Uraiyuṭaṉ. Ceṉṉai: South Indian Saiva Siddhanta Works Publishing Society, 1999 [1943].

[11] KRISHNAN, K.G. Inscriptions of the Early Pāṇḍyas, c. -300 B.C. to 984 A.D. New Delhi: Indian Council of Historical Research / Northern Book Centre, 2002.

[12] GIULANO, Laura. Il vajrapuruṣa in due rilievi di Nāgārjunakoṇḍa. Rivista degli Studi Orientali, 1998, LXXII, 143–175.

[13] GIULANO, Laura. On Vajrapuruṣa. East & West, 2001, 51, 3–4, 247–298.

[14] GIULANO, Laura. Studies in early śaiva Iconography. (I) the Origin of the triśūla and some related Problems. Silk Road Art and Archaeology, 2004, 10, 51–96.

[15] Mahābhārata. Ed. Vishnu Sitaram SUKTHANKAR et alii, Poona: Bhandarkar Oriental Institute, 1933–1963.

[16] Puṟanāṉūṟu. Ed. Cu. Turaicāmi PILLAI. 2 vol. Ceṉṉai: Tirunelvēli Teṉṉintiya Caivacittānta Nūṟ Patippukkaḻakam, 2002 [1958].

[17] SCHMID, Charlotte. Bhakti in its Infancy: Genealogy Matters in the Kailāsanātha of Kāñcīpuram. The Archaeology of Bhakti I, Mathurā and Maturai, Back and Forth. Pondichéry: ÉFEO / Institut Français de Pondichéry (collection Indologie 125), 2014, 89–141.

[18] Tamil Lexicon. 6 vol. Madras: The University of Madras, 1924–1939.

[19] Tēvāram: Subrahmanya. Ed. V.M. AIYAR; Jean-Luc CHEVILLARD; S.A.S. SARMA. Pondichéry: CNRS / ÉFEO / Institut Français de Pondichéry (collection Indologie 103), 2007.

[20] SHAH, Priyabala. Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa. Critically edited with Introduction, Notes etc. Third Khaṇḍa. 2 vol. Vadodara: Oriental Institute, 1994.

[21] Tamil Dictionary / Glossary on Historical Principles Project: Glossary of Historical Tamil Literature (upto 1800 AD), volume V. Chennai: Santi Sadhana, 2002.

[22] WILDEN, Eva. Naṟṟiṇai. A Critical Edition and an Annotated Translation of the Naṟṟiṇai. Chennai: ÉFEO / Tamilmann Patippakam (Critical Texts of Cankam Literature 1), 2007.

[23] WILDEN, Eva. Kuṟuntokai. A Critical Edition and an Annotated Translation + Glossary. Chennai: ÉFEO /Tamilmann Patippakam (Critical Texts of Caṅkam Literature 2.1–2.3) 2010.

[24] ZVELEBIL, Kamil Veith. Lexicon of Tamil Literature. Leiden – New York – Köln: Brill (Handbuch der Orientalistik n°II.9), 1995.