Variable shape templates and the position of Czech in templatic typology

Title: Variable shape templates and the position of Czech in templatic typology
Variant title
Templáty s variabilní formou a pozice češtiny v templatické typologii
Author: Scheer, Tobias
Source document: Linguistica Brunensia. 2016, vol. 64, iss. 1, pp. 89-107
  • ISSN
    1803-7410 (print)
    2336-4440 (online)
Type: Article
License: Not specified license
The article proposes an overview of the kind of templatic restrictions that are found across languages, as well as of related issues. Questions that are addressed include the delineation of templates (how is the stretch of the linear string defined that is subject to a templatic restriction?), their raison d'être (why do they exist in cases where they are not a morpheme?) and their interaction with morpho- syntax (how does the phonological size restriction come into being given the morpho-semantic category associated?). The study also looks at templates in acquisition, which appear ex nihilo when target languages have no templates (hence in absence of any stimulus) and disappear at a certain developmental stage. The existence of child templates may be related to the development of memory: templates are an instrument that reduces the amount of memory mobilized per word. Finally, it is shown that there are two distinct types of templates: Fixed Shape Templates (FST) and Variable Shape Templates (VST). The former are the classical Semitic templates where a fixed sequence of consonants and vowels satisfies the templatic restriction. While these can be stored as one lexical item, VST cannot since they satisfy the size restriction by way of a variety of shapes. For all issues discussed, the position of Czech templates in the typology is identified.
[1] Akinlabi, Akinbiyi – Urua, Eno E. 2002. Foot structure in the Ibibio verb. Journal of African Languages and Linguistics. 23, pp. 119–160.

[2] Barillot, Xavier. 2002. Morphophonologie gabaritique et information consonantique latente en somali et dans les langues est-couchitiques. Ph.D. thesis. University Paris 7.

[3] Ben Si Saïd, Samir – Scheer, Tobias – Ziková, Markéta. 2009. Association under control. Talk presented at MFM 17, 28–30 May, Manchester.

[4] Bendjaballah, Sabrina – Haiden, Martin. 2003. Meaningful vowels. In: Proceedings of the XXVIII Incontro di Grammatica Generativa. Lecce: Congedo Editore.

[5] Bendjaballah, Sabrina – Haiden, Martin. 2005. Präpositionen und Komplementierer in Chemini Berber (Taqbaylit). Folia Linguistica. 39, pp. 319–361.

[6] Bendjaballah, Sabrina – Haiden, Martin. 2008. A Typology of Emptiness in Templates. In: Hartmann, Juta et al., eds. Sounds of Silence: Empty Elements in Syntax and Phonology. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 23–54.

[7] Bendjaballah, Sabrina – Haiden, Martin. 2013. The representational anomalies of floating markers: light prepositions in Taqbaylit of Chemini. In: Biberauer, Theresa – Roberts, Ian, eds. Challenges to Linearization. Berlin: de Gruyter, pp. 331–376.

[8] Bendjaballah, Sabrina – Reintges, Chris H. 2009. Ancient Egyptian verbal reduplication: typology, diachrony, and the morphology-syntax interface. Morphology. 19, pp. 135–157. | DOI 10.1007/s11525-009-9138-5

[9] Bethin, Christina. 2003. Metrical Quantity in Czech: Evidence From Hypocoristics. In: Brown, Wayles et al., eds. Formal Approaches to Slavic Languages. The Amherst Meeting, 2002. Ann Arbor: Michigan Slavic Publications, pp. 63–82.

[10] Brockelmann, Carl. 1908. Kurzgefasste vergleichende grammatik der semitischen sprachen: elemente der laut- und formenlehre. Berlin: Reuther & Reichard.

[11] Caha, Pavel – Scheer, Tobias. 2008. The Syntax and phonology of Czech templatic morphology. In Antonenko, Andrei et al., eds. Formal Approaches to Slavic Linguistics. The Stony Brook Meeting, 2007. Ann Arbor: Michigan Slavic Publications, pp. 68–83.

[12] Caha, Pavel – Ziková, Markéta. 2015. Vocalic length as evidence for the free/bound particle distinction in Czech. Talk presented at SinFonIja 8, Ljubljana, 24–26 September.

[13] Cantineau, Jean. 1947. Esquisse d’une phonologie de l'arabe classique. Paris: Klincksieck.

[14] Caratini, Emilie. 2009. Vocalic and consonantal quantity in German: synchronic and diachronic perspectives. Ph.D. thesis, Nice University and Leipzig University.

[15] Carvalho, Joacquim Brandão de. 2004. Templatic morphology in the Portuguese verb. In: Meisenburg, Trudel – Selig, Maria, eds. Nouveaux départs en phonologie: les conceptions sub- et suprasegmentales. Tübingen: Narr, pp. 13–32.

[16] Carvalho, Joacquim Brandão de. 2006. Markedness gradient in the Portuguese verb: how morphology and phonology interact. In: Fónagy, Ivan et al., eds. Prosody and Syntax. Amsterdam: Benjamins, pp. 157–174.

[17] Downing, Laura. 2006. Canonical Forms in Prosodic Morphology, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[18] Encrevé, Pierre – Scheer, Tobias. 2005. Autosegmental association is not automatic. Talk presented at MFM 13, May 26–28, Manchester.

[19] Guerssel, Mohamed – Lowenstamm, Jean. 1990. The derivational morphology of the Classical Arabic Verb. Ms., UQAM and University Paris 7.

[20] Hall, Tracy. 1992. Syllable Structure and Syllable-Related Processes in German, Tübingen: Niemeyer.

[21] Hayes, Bruce. 1989. Compensatory Lengthening in Moraic Phonology. Linguistic Inquiry. 20, pp. 253–306.

[22] Hulst, Harry van der. 1985. Ambisyllabicity in Dutch. In: Bennis, Hans et al., eds. Linguistics in the Netherlands 1985. Dordrecht: Foris, pp. 57–66.

[23] Hyman, Larry – Inkelas, Sharon. 1997. Emergent templates: the unusual case of Tiene. University of Maryland Working Papers in Linguistics. 5, pp. 92–116.

[24] Kager, René – Zonneveld, Wim. 1999. Introduction. In: Kager, René – Zonneveld, Wim, eds. The Prosody-Morphology Interface. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–38.

[25] Macken, Marlys. 1992. Where's phonology? In: Ferguson, Charles et al., eds. Phonological Development. Models, Research, Implications. Timonium, MD: York Press, pp. 249–273.

[26] McCarthy, John. 1979. Formal problems in Semitic phonology and morphology. Ph.D thesis. MIT.

[27] McCarthy, John – Prince, Alan. 1990. Foot and word in Prosodic Morphology: the Arabic broken plural. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory. 8, pp. 209–283.

[28] McCarthy, John – Prince, Alan. 1996. Prosodic Morphology 1986. Ms., University of Massachusetts, Rutgers University.

[29] Menn, Lise. 1978. Phonological Units in beginning Speech. In: Bell, Alan – Bybee Hooper, Joan, eds. Syllables and segments. Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 209–283.

[30] Poser, William. 1990. Word-Internal Phrase Boundary in Japanese. In: Inkelas, Sharon – Zec, Draga, eds. The Phonology-Syntax Connection. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 279–288.

[31] Revithiadou, Anthi. 2007. Coloured turbid accents and containment: a case study from lexical stress. In: Blaho, Sylvia et al., eds. Freedom of Analysis? Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 149–174.

[32] Riad, Thomas. 1992. Structures in Germanic Prosody. Ph.D. thesis. University of Stockholm.

[33] Rubach, Jerzy. 1996. Shortening and ambisyllabicity in English. Phonology. 13, pp. 197–237. | DOI 10.1017/S0952675700002104

[34] Šaur, Vladimír. 1995. K výkladu vývoje české vokalické kvantity. In: Karlík, Petr et al., eds. Pocta Dušanu Šlosarovi. Sborník k 65. narozeninám. Boskovice: Alber, pp. 91–96.

[35] Scheer, Tobias. 2001. Čeština ve Waršawě. Course handout, University of Warsaw.

[36] Scheer, Tobias. 2001. The Rhytmic Law in Czech: Vowel-final prefixes. In: Zybatow, Gerhild et al., eds. Current Issues in Formal Slavic Linguistics. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, pp. 37–48.

[37] Scheer, Tobias. 2003. The Key to Czech Vowel Length: Templates. In: Kosta, Peter et al., eds. Investigations into Formal Slavic Linguistics. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, pp. 97–118.

[38] Scheer, Tobias. 2004. Le corpus heuristique: un outil qui montre mais ne démontre pas. Corpus. 3, pp. 153–192.

[39] Scheer, Tobias. 2004. O samohláskové délce při derivaci v češtinĕ. In: Hladká, Zdena – Karlík, Petr, eds. Čeština – univerzália a specifika. Vol. 5. Praha: NLN, pp. 172–194.

[40] Scheer, Tobias. 2010. Review of Gussmann (2007) The Phonology of Polish. Studies in Polish Linguistics. 5, pp. 111–160.

[41] Scheer, Tobias – Ziková, Markéta. 2010. The Havlík Pattern and Directional Lower. In: Browne, Wayles et al., eds. Formal Approaches to Slavic Linguistics. The Second Cornell Meeting 2009. Ann Arbor: Michigan Slavic Publications, pp. 470–485.

[42] Scheer, Tobias. 2011. Home-made Western Slavic vowel length. In: Sukač, Roman, ed. From Present to Past and Back. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, pp. 165–187.

[43] Steriade, Donca. 1988. Reduplication and Syllable Transfer in Sanskrit and Elsewhere. Phonology. 5, pp. 73–155. | DOI 10.1017/S0952675700002190

[44] van Oostendorp, Mark. 2006. Incomplete devoicing in formal phonology. Ms., Meertens Institute Amsterdam.

[45] Vihman, Marilyn – Croft, William. 2007. Phonological development: toward a "radical" templatic phonology. Linguistics. 45, pp. 683–725.

[46] Vihman, Marilyn – Keren-Portnoy, Tamar, eds. 2013. The Emergence of Phonology: Wholeword Approaches and Cross-linguistic evidence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[47] Vihman, Marilyn. 2001. Review of 'Papers in laboratory phonology V: Acquisition and the lexicon'. Applied Psycholinguistics. 22, pp. 273–278.

[48] Vihman, Marilyn. 2015. Prosodic structures and templates in bilingual phonological development Bilingualism: Language and Cognition.

[49] Wauquier, Sophie. 2005. Statut des représentations phonologiques en acquisition, traitement de la parole continue et dysphasie développementale. Habilitation thesis. EHESS Paris.

[50] Wauquier, Sophie – Yamaguchi, Naomi. 2013. Templates in French. In: Vihman, Marilyn – Keren-Portnoy, Tamar, eds. The Emergence of Phonology: Whole-word Approaches and Cross-linguistic evidence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 317–342.

[51] Wiese, Richard. 1988. Silbische und Lexikalische Phonologie: Studien zum Chinesischen und Deutschen, Tübingen, Niemeyer.

[52] Wiese, Richard. 1996. The Phonology of German, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[53] Ziková, Markéta. 2012. Lexical Prefixes and Templatic Domains: Prefix Lengthening in Czech. In: Ziková, Markéta – Dočekal, Mojmír, eds. Slavic Languages in Formal Grammar. Proceedings of FDSL 8.5, Brno 2010. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, pp. 325–338.

[54] Ziková, Markéta. 2013. Templatic Lengthening in Czech: Diminutives. Talk presented at FDSL 10, 5–7 December, Leipzig.