Faces of modernism after Trianon : Károly Kós, Lajos Kozma and Neo-Baroque design in interwar Hungary

Title: Faces of modernism after Trianon : Károly Kós, Lajos Kozma and Neo-Baroque design in interwar Hungary
Author: Stirton, Paul
Source document: Art East Central. 2021, vol. 1, iss. 1, pp. 11-49
  • ISSN
    2695-1428 (online)
Type: Article

Notice: These citations are automatically created and might not follow citation rules properly.

In comparing the careers of Károly Kós and Lajos Kozma between c. 1907 and 1930, this article explores the impact of the First World War and its aftermath on the work of two leading Hungarian architect-designers. These circumstances not only affected their working practices and professional opportunities, but also reflected changes in taste, theory and the source materials of Hungarian domestic design. While Kós clung ever more desperately to the values that shaped his pre-war practice, Kozma embarked on a new direction embracing the Neo-Baroque, a style that emerged with distinctive regional characteristics in many of the successor states of Central Europe in the 1920s. The article discusses some of the sources and meanings of this style.
[1] Beke, L. and Varga, Z. 1968. Kozma Lajos. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó.

[2] Benson, T. and Forgács, E. eds. 2002. Between Worlds: A Sourcebook of Central European Avant-Gardes. Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press.

[3] Bowe, N. G. ed. 1993. Art and the National Dream: the Search for Vernacular Expression in Turn-of-the-Century Design. Dublin: Irish Academic Press.

[4] Burke, C. 2007. Active Literature: Jan Tschichold and New Typography, London: Hyphen Press.

[5] Calabrese, O. 1992. Neo-Baroque: A Sign of the Times. Princeton NJ.: Princeton University Press.

[6] Crowley, D. 1995. The Uses of Peasant Design in Austria-Hungary in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries, Studies in the Decorative Arts, 2:2, 2-28.

[7] Crowley, D. and Taylor, L. eds. 2000. The Lost Arts of Europe: The Haslemere Museum collection of European Peasant Art. Haslemere: Haslemere Educational Museum.

[8] Czakó, E. 1908. Mai magyar egyházmüvészet [Contemporary Hungarian church art], Magyar Iparmüvészet, 11:3, 120-125.

[9] Ernyey, G. ed. 1999. Britain and Hungary: Contacts in Architecture and Design, Budapest: Hungarian University of Craft and Design.

[10] Fejős, Z. ed. 2006. Huszka József: a rajzoló gyűjtő [József Huszka: the drawing collector]. Budapest: Néprajzi Múzeum.

[11] Gall, A. 2002. Kós Károly műhelye / The Workshop of Károly Kós. Budapest: Mundus Kiadó.

[12] Gall, A. 2019. Károly Kós, Budapest: Holnap Kiadó.

[13] Haiman, G. 1991. Imre Kner and the Revival of Hungarian Printing, Design Issues, 7:2, 41-53. | DOI 10.2307/1511406

[14] Haiman, G. and Lévay, B. eds. 1982. A Kner-nyomda, kiadványainak tükrében 1882-1944 [The Kner printing house, 1882-1944, in the light of its publications]. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó.

[15] Hanebrink, P. A. 2009. In Defense of Christian Hungary: Religion, Nationalism, and Antisemitism, 1890-1944. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

[16] Háy, G. 1929. Kozma Lajos, ahogy ma látjuk [Lajos Kozma as we see him today], Tér és Forma, 2:7, 278-287.

[17] Hnídková, V. ed. 2013. Národní styl: Kultura a politika [National Style: Culture and Politics]. Prague: Academy of Arts, Architecture and Design.

[18] Horányi, E. ed. 2006. Kozma Lajos modern épületei [The modern architecture of Lajos Kozma]. Budapest: TERC Kiadó.

[19] Huszka, J. 1885. Magyar díszítő styl [Hungarian decorative style]. Budapest: Deutsch.

[20] Janatková, A. 2000. Barockrezeption zwischen Historismus und Moderne. Die Architekturdiskussion in Prag 1890–1914. Zürich: GTA Verlag.

[21] Keserü, K. ed. 2005. A modernizmus kezdetei /The Beginnings of Modernism in Central European Architecture. Budapest: Ernst Muzeum.

[22] Kinchin, J. 2002. Modernity and Tradition in Hungarian Furniture, 1900-1938: Three Generations, The Journal of Decorative and Propaganda Arts, 24, 64-93. | DOI 10.2307/1504183

[23] Kiss, E. 2018. Népművészet és dekorativitás: A fiatal Kozma Lajos tulipános tervei [Folk art and decorativeness: Tulip designs by the young Lajos Kozma], Magyar Iparművészet, 17:7, 19-24.

[24] Kiss, E. and Horváth, H. 1994. Kozma Lajos, az iparművész (1884-1948) [Lajos Kozma the designer]. Budapest: Iparművészeti Múzeum.

[25] Kós K. 1909. Erdélyország népének épitése, [Architecture of the Transylvanian People], manuscript from 1907 in National Széchényi Library, partially reprinted in A Ház, 2:1, 125-132.

[26] Kós, K. 1923. Kézműves Céh [The Guild of Handicraft], Vasárnapi Újság, 1 July, 1923, 60.

[27] Kós, K. 1929. Erdély [Transylvania]. Kolozsvár / Cluj: Erdély Szépmíves Céh.

[28] Kós, K. 1940. Saarinen Eliel, a legnagyobb finn építőművész [Eliel Saarinen, The Greatest Finnish Architect], Pásztortűz, 26:2, 86-90.

[29] Kós, K. 1991. Ėletrajz [Biography], Budapest: Kriterion Szépirodalmi, Kiadó.

[30] Kozma, L. 1921. Zsuzsa Bergengóciában [Zsuzsa in Bergengóciá]. Budapest: Sacelláry.

[31] Lajos, K. 1913. Az iparművészet fejlődésének új irányáról [On the new trend in the development of applied arts], Magyar Iparművészet, 16:8, 307-311.

[32] Lechner, Ö. 1906. Magyar formanyelv nem volt, hanem lesz [There has not been a Hungarian language of form, but there will be], Müvészet, 1:5, 1-18.

[33] Malonyay, D. 1907-22. A magyar nép művészete [The art of the Hungarian people]. Budapest: Franklin-Társulat.

[34] Mohácsi, J. 1924. Das Schlafgemach einer Dame, Innen-Dekoration, 35:1, 4-13.

[35] Nádai, P. 1914. Gyermekművészet [Childrens' Art], Magyar Iparművészet, 17, 219 and 237-240.

[36] Nádai, P. 1920. Az iparművészet Magyarországon [Applied Arts in Hungary]. Budapest: Biró Miklós Kiadása.

[37] Nádai, P. 2005. On a Modern Urban Builder: The Art of Béla Lajta. In K. Keserü K. ed., A modernizmus kezdetei / The Beginnings of Modernism in Central European Architecture, Budapest: Ernst Muzeum, 233-234.

[38] Noever, P. ed. 2002. Dagobert Peche and the Wiener Werkstatte. New Haven: Yale University Press.

[39] Pevsner, N. 1936. Pioneers of the Modern Movement: from William Morris to Walter Gropius. London: Faber and Faber.

[40] Sinkó, K. 2006. Megjegyzések a 19. századi ornamentika-teóriák antropológiai vonatkozásairól [Notes on the anthropological aspects of 19th century ornament theories]. In K. Keserű, ed., Ornamentika és modernizmus, 22-24. Budapest: Ernst Múzeum.

[41] Stirton, P. 2019. Jan Tschichold and the New Typography, New Haven: Yale University Press.

[42] Stirton, P. and Kinchin, J. 1999. The Hungarian Folk Arts Debate. In G. Ernyey, ed., Britain and Hungary: Contacts in Architecture and Design, 30-46. Budapest: Hungarian University of Craft and Design.

[43] Szekfű, G. 1920. Három nemzedék: Egy hanyatló kor története [Three generations: the history of an epoch of decay]. Budapest: Élet.

[44] Szekfű G. 1934. Három nemzedék, és ami utána következik [Three Generations and what follows]. Budapest: Királyi Magyar Egyetemi Nyomda.

[45] Teige, K. 2000. Modern Architecture in Czechoslovakia and Other Writings, trans. I. Murray and D. Britt. Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute.