The economics of museums : a contemporary debate

Title: The economics of museums : a contemporary debate
Variant title
Muzejní ekonomika : současný diskurz
Source document: Museologica Brunensia. 2021, vol. 10, iss. 2, pp. 2-11
  • ISSN
    1805-4722 (print)
    2464-5362 (online)
Type: Article
This paper aims to show how the economics of museums can resolve the debates on the usefulness of museums, their financing, and the possibility of self-financing, which came up after the economic and social crisis following World War II, when museums were described as elitist institutions. Museums have evolved, responding with flexibility and adaptation to historical events, but this has not been easy. The seminal 1974 article by Peacock and Godfrey, which, in the opinion of specialists, initiated an economic approach with regard to museums, was studied in detail. Further, a selective literature review was conducted for the analysis of the historical development of the concept of museums, as well as subsequent studies that have enriched the unfinished debate on the financing and production aspects of these institutions. The possibility of being financed with public budget allocations and donations, as well as maintaining balanced finances with admission fees, allowed museums to develop and improve their services. Today, museums are growing institutions that fulfill their function in society and are open to all audiences.
Příspěvek pojednává o tom, jakým způsobem může muzejní ekonomika přispět k řešení otázek ohledně užitečnosti muzeí, jejich dotování a možného samofinancování. Tyto problémy se dostaly do popředí v průběhu ekonomické a společenské krize po druhé světové válce, kdy byla muzea považována za elitářské instituce. Muzea se neustále vyvíjí a snaží se flexibilně reagovat a adaptovat se na dějinné události. Není to však jednoduchý proces. Základem předmětného výzkumu bylo detailní prostudování článku Peacocka a Godfreye z roku 1974, jenž podle názoru odborníků dodal klíčový impuls k vnímání problematiky muzeí z ekonomického hlediska. Následné studium vybrané literatury poskytlo východiska pro analýzu historického vývoje koncepce muzejnictví a přispělo k obohacení probíhající diskuse o finančních a produkčních aspektech muzejních institucí. Díky možnosti financování z veřejného rozpočtu a sponzorských darů a také udržování finanční rovnováhy pomocí vstupného se muzea mohla dál rozvíjet a zlepšovat svoje služby. V současnosti představují muzea progresivní instituce, které plní svou nezastupitelnou úlohu ve společnosti a jsou přístupné všem.
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