Dialogisme du double sens : l'exemple du Rāghavapāṇḍavīya de Kavirāja

Source document: Études romanes de Brno. 2014, vol. 35, iss. 2, pp. [119]-143
  • ISSN
    1803-7399 (print)
    2336-4416 (online)
Type: Article
License: Not specified license
This article is part of a larger study aiming at showing that Sanskrit poems with multiple meanings, far from being obscure or utterly difficult to understand were quite an important and appreciated genre of Indian literature. The understanding of such poems was based upon common literary practices, shared by poets and readers and the latter were perfectly able to decipher the various meanings because they were at the same time aware of the rules of the work they were going to read and duly informed of the different stories it referred to. Focusing on one famous double meaning poem, the Rāghavapāṇḍavīya, "Story of the Scion of Raghu and the Sons of Pāṇḍu", composed by Kavirāja around 1175 AD and summarising the two major epics of India, the Rāmāyaṇa and the Mahābhārata, through the very same words. Two aspects of the method the poet has recourse to in order to facilitate his work's understanding, both in the very beginning of it, will be analysed. The first consists in the introductory statement, quite explicit and many times repeated, that the poem conveys two meanings and that these two meanings are the story of Rāma and that of the sons of Pāṇḍu. The second consists in a kind of short treatise of poetics displayed in two stanzas of the poem's first chapter, from which the readers may learn some of the poetical and linguistic devices by which two meanings may be conveyed at the same time: inversion of the qualifying property and the qualified object, inversion of the subject and the object of comparison, double segmentation of the same phrase and use of polysemic words. Each device will be closely analysed, examples will be given and commented on. Of course, other factors contribute to the understanding of poems with multiple meanings, which will be dealt with in another more extensive study.
[1] BHASAK, R. Rāmacaritam of Sandhyākaranandin. Revised with English Translation and Notes. Memoir Series vol. III, N°1 (reprint). Calcutta: The Asiatic Society, 1969.

[2] BHATT, G.H.; SHAH, U.P. The Vālmīki-Rāmāyaṇa. Edition critique, 7 vols. Baroda: Oriental Institute, 1960–1975.

[3] BIARDEAU, Madeleine ; PORCHER, Marie-Claude. Le Rāmāyaṇa de Vālmīki. Paris : Gallimard, Bibliothèque de la Pléiade. 1999.

[4] BROCQUET, Sylvain. La geste de Rāma : Poème à double sens de Sandhyākaranandin (Introduction, texte, traduction, analyse). Pondichéry : Institut français de Pondichéry-École française d'extrême-orient, Collection Indologie 110, 2010.

[5] DUPONT-ROC, J.; LALLOT, J. Aristote. La poétique. Texte, traduction, notes. Paris: Seuil, 1980.

[6] DURGÂPRASAD M.P.; PAṆASHÎKAR W.L.Sh. The Dhvanyâloka of Ânandavardhanâchârya. With the Commentary of Abhinavaguptâchârya. Bombay: Kâvyamālā 25, 1911.

[7] JHĀ, (Pandit) Dāmodar. Rāghava Pāṇdaveeyam of Kavirāja Pandit. Edited with the Subhodhinī and Saralā Sanskrit-Hindī Commentaries. Vidyabhawan Sanskrit Granthamala N°128, Varanasi, 1965.

[8] INGALLS, D.I.I.; MASSON, J.M.; PATWARDHAN, M.V. The Dhvanyāloka of Ānandavardhana. With the Locana of Abhinavagupta. Cambridge: Massachussets-London : Harvard University Press, 1990.

[9] MAJUMDAR, R.C.; BHASAK, R.; KAVYATIRTHA, N. B. The Rāmacaritam of Sandhyākaranandin. Edited with Sanskrit Commentaries and English Translation. Rajshahi: The Varendra Research Museum, 1939.

[10] ROY, P.C. (GANGULI, K.M.). The Mahābhārata. 12 vols. Calcutta, s.d. (réimpr. New Delhi : Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, 1970).

[11] ŚIVADATTA, M.P.; PARAB, K.P. The Rāghavapāṇḍavīya of Kavirāja. With the Commentary of Śaśadhara. Kāvyamālā N° 62. Bombay, 1897.

[12] SUKTHANKAR, V.S.; PARANJPE, V.G.; VAIDYA, P.L. et alii. The Mahābhārata. For the First Time Critically Edited. 21 vols. Pune: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, 1933–1972.

[13] BROCQUET, Sylvain. L'allégorie dans la poésie savante de l'Inde, problèmes de la codification des pratiques allégoriques. In L'allégorie, corps et âme. Entre personnification et double sens. Actes du colloque sur l'allégorie, Université de Provence, Juin 2001. Ed. Joëlle. GARDES TAMINE. Aix-en-Provence : Presses de l'Université de Provence, 2002, 49–75.

[14] BROCQUET, Sylvain. Les mots non simples dans la tradition indienne pāṇinéenne. In Regards croisés sur les mots non simples. Ed. Barbara KALTZ. Lyon: ENS Éditions, 2008, 11–33.

[15] BROCQUET, Sylvain. La fabrique du double sens dans la poésie sanskrite : l'exemple du Rāghavapāṇḍavīya de Kavirāja. In Bulletin d'études indiennes, 2015 (à paraître), 31.

[16] BRONNER, Yigal. Extreme Poetry. The South-Asian Movement of Simultaneous Narration. New York : Columbia University Press, 2010.

[17] CUSIMANO, Christophe. La polysémie. Essai de sémantique générale. Paris : L'Harmattan, 2008.

[18] DE, Sushil Kumar. Studies in the History of Sanskrit Poetics. London, 1925 (rééd. Calcutta, 1960).

[19] FILLIOZAT, P.-S. Grammaire sanskrite pâninéenne. Paris : Picard, 1988.

[20] GEROW, Edwin. A Glossary of Indian Figures of Speech. La Hague: Mouton, 1971.

[21] KLEIBER, Georges. Problèmes de sémantique. La polysémie en questions. Villeneuve d'Asq : PU du Septentrion, 1999.

[22] KÖLVER, Bernhard. Ambiguities, Polysemy, and Identifications. In Flowers, nature, semiotics. Kāvya and Sangam. Pandanus 1998. Ed. Jaroslav VACEK; Blanka. KNOTKOVÁ-ČAPKOVÁ. Prague: Signeta, 1999 (a), 81–102.

[23] KÖLVER, Bernhard. Multiple Meanings in Prākr̥t Texts. In Flowers, nature, semiotics. Kāvya and Sangam. Pandanus 1998. Ed. Jaroslav VACEK; Blanka. KNOTKOVÁ-ČAPKOVÁ. Prague: Signeta, 1999 (b), 119–129.

[24] LIENHARD, Siegfried. A History of Classical Poetry. Sanskrit - Pali – Prakrit. Wiesbaden, 1984.

[25] MACDONELL, Arthur-Anthony. A Sanskrit Grammar for Students. London: Oxford University Press, 1927.

[26] MONIER-WILLIAMS, Monier. A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1899 (rééd.).

[27] PORCHER, Marie-Claude. Figures de style en sanskrit. Théorie des Alaṃkāraśāstra. Analyse de poèmes de Veṅkatādhvarin. Paris : Institut de civilisation indienne, Collège de France, 1978.

[28] POTTIER, Bernard. Sémantique générale. Paris : PUF, 1992.

[29] RASTIER, François. Sémantique interprétative. Paris : PUF, collection « Formes sémiotiques », 1987 (3e éd. mise à jour : 2009) .

[30] RENOU, Louis. Grammaire sanscrite. Paris : Adrien Maisonneuve, 1975 (rééd.).

[31] SPEIJER, J.S. Sanskrit Syntax. Leiden, 1886.

[32] TOURATIER, Christian. La sémantique. Paris : Armand Colin, collection « Cursus », 2005.

[33] WHITNEY, William-Dwight. Sanskrit Grammar, Leipzig, 1924.