Jména nádob v tocharských jazycích

Variant title
A note to etymology of the vessel-names in Tocharian languages
Source document: Linguistica Brunensia. 2015, vol. 63, iss. 1, pp. 21-35
  • ISSN
    1803-7410 (print)
    2336-4440 (online)
Indoeuropean (other)
License: Not specified license
The purpose of the present contribution is to summarize the Tocharian vessel-names and offer new etymological solutions of terms without satisfactory etymologies. The choice of our linguistic interest in this contribution, vessel-names in Tocharian, was motivated by the fact that vessels are integral part of exchange trade probably from discovery of ceramics and represent an ideal tool for study of mutual contacts between languages. We conclude that the borrowed terms were adopted in various chronological layers, depending on application of typical Tocharian sound rules, and from various donor-languages: (a) Most recent are apparently terms of Sanskrit origin (karute-, kump, kunti, präṅkār / bhräṅkār, bhājaṃ, maybe watsālo and kwalyiye), since practically no sound rules typical for Tocharian appear in them. (b) Iranian loans (tās-, sapule) are probably older. At least in one case (sapule) it is possible to determine the Bactrian source. The Tocharian-Bactrian contact is dated to the 2nd cent. BCE. (c) In the case of cultural terms (lyakace, kwalyiye) the development typical for Tocharian B may be identified. (d) The terms aise & tsere seem to be formed in Tocharian B proper. (e) The term lwāke, if our Chinese etymology is correct, was borrowed in the beginning of the 1st mill. CE.
  • Studie vznikla díky grantu GAČR, projekt GAP406/12/0655.
[1] Adams, Douglas Q. 1988. Tocharian Historical Phonology and Morphology . New Haven: American Oriental Society.

[2] Adams, Douglas Q. 1999. A Dictionary of Tocharian B . Amsterdam–Atlanta: Rodopi.

[3] Adams, Douglas Q. 2009. New and improved words: additions and corrections to A dictionary of Tocharian B, Part 1: Words beginning with vowels . Tocharian and Indo-European Studies,11, s. 13–37.

[4] Adams, Douglas Q. 2013. A Dictionary of Tocharian B (Revised and Greatly Enlarged). Vol. 1–2 . Amsterdam–New York: Rodopi.

[5] Bailey, Harold Walter. 1979. Dictionary of Khotan Saka . Cambridge: University Press.

[6] Baxter, William H. 1992. A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology . Berlin–New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

[7] Bernard, Paul. 1994. The Greek Kingdoms of Central Asia . In: Harmatta, János, ed. History of civilizations of Central Asia. Volume II. The development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations: 700 B.C. to A.D. 250. Paris: UNESCO Publishing, s. 99–129.

[8] Blažek, Václav. 1999. Alimenta Tocharica (1–3) . Tocharian and Indo-European Studies. 8, s. 79–84; see also In: Schwarz, Michal, ed. Tocharian Studies, Brno: Masaryk University 2011, s. 40–45.

[9] Blažek, Václav. 2010. The Indo-European "Smith" . Washington D.C.: Institute for the Study of Man. Journal of Indo-European Studies, Monograph Series, 58.

[10] Blažek, Václav. 2014. Nádoby určené k pití v indoevropském slovníku . Linguistica-Brunensia, 62(1), s. 67–76.

[11] Blažek, Václav – Schwarz, Michal. 2008/2011. Tocharians. Who they were, where they came from and where they lived . Lingua Posnaniensis. 2008, 50, s. 47–74, cited after the version in Tocharian Studies, Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2011, s. 113–147.

[12] Blažek, Václav – Schwarz, Michal. 2011a. Tocharian Studies . Brno, Masarykova univerzita.

[13] Blažek, Václav – Schwarz, Michal. 2011b. Tocharian AB kulyp- 'to crave, desire' and the Indo-European root *leubh- . Indogermanische Forschungen. 116, s. 72–86. | DOI 10.1515/9783110239485.72

[14] Blažek, Václav – Hegedűs, Irén. 2012. On the position of Nuristani within Indo-Iranian . Paper presented at the conference Sound of Indo-European 2: Papers on Indo-European phonetics, phonemics and morphophonemics. Muenchen: Lincom, s. 40–66.

[15] Cheung, Johnny. 2007. Etymological Dictionary of the Iranian Verb . Leiden-Boston: Brill.

[16] Ching, Chao-jung. 2011. Silk in Ancient Kucha: on the Toch. B word kaum* found in the documents of the Tang period . Tocharian and Indo-European Studies. 12, s. 63–82.

[17] DTA = Carling, Gerd – Pinault, Georges-Jean – Winter, Werner. 2009. Dictionary and Thesaurus of Tocharian A. Vol. I: A–J , Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

[18] Durkin-Meisterernst, Desmond. 2004. Dictionary of Manichaean Texts. Vol. III: Texts from Central Asia and China . Edited by Nicholas Sims-Williams, Part 1: Dictionary of Manichaean Middle Persian and Parthian. Turnhout (Belgium): Brepols.

[19] EDAL = Starostin, Sergei – Dybo, Anna – Mudrak, Oleg. 2003. Etymological Dictionary of the Altaic Languages . Leiden–Boston: Brill.

[20] ESIJ = Rastorgueva, Vera – Ėdel'man, Džoj. 2000. Ėtimologičeskij slovaŕ iranskix jazykov. Tom I . Moskva: Vostočnaja literatura.

[21] EWAI = Mayrhofer, Manfred. 1986–2001. Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen. B. I–III . Heidelberg: Winter.

[22] Falk, Hjalmar – Torp, Alf. 1909. Wortschatz der germanischen Spracheinheit . Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

[23] Fraenkel, Ernst. 1962–1965. Litauisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. B. I–II . Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht – Heidelberg: Winter.

[24] Hilmarsson, J. 1996. Materials for a Tocharian Historical and Etymological Dictionary . Edited by Lubotsky, A. – Þórhallsdóttir, G. Reykjavík: Málvísindastofnun Háskola Íslands.

[25] Holthausen, Ferdinand. 1963. Altenglisches etymologisches Wörterbuch . Heidelberg: Winter.

[26] GSR = Karlgren, Bernhard. 1957. Grammata Serica Recensa . Stockholm: Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, Stockholm.

[27] Isebaert, Lambert. 1991. Quelques considerations sur les emprunts iraniens en tokharien. Le traitement des diphtongues . In: Lambert, Isebaert, ed. Studia Etymologica Indoeuropaea. Memoriae A.J. Van Windekens dicata. Louvain: Peeters, s. 141–150.

[28] Kloekhorst, Alwin. 2008. Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon . Leiden–Boston: Brill.

[29] Lehmann, Winfred Philipp. 1986. A Gothic Etymological Dictionary . Leiden: Brill.

[30] LIV = Kümmel, Martin et al., directed by Helmut Rix. 2001. Lexicon der indogermanischen Verben . Wiesbaden: Reichert.

[31] Lubotsky, Alexander. 2001. The Indo-Iranian substratum . In: Carpelan, Chr. – Parpola, A. – Koskikallio, P., eds. Early Contacts between Uralic and Indo-European: Linguistic and Archaeological Considerations. Helsinki: Société Finno-Ougrienne. Mémoires de la Société Finno-ougrienne, Vol. 242, s. 301–317.

[32] Lubotsky, Alexander. – Starostin, Sergei. 2003. Turkic and Chinese Loanwords in Tocharian . In: Bauer, Brigitte L. M. – Pinault, Georges-Jean. Language in time and space. A Festschrift for Werner Winter on the Occasion of his 80th Birthday. Berlin–New York: Mouton de Gruyter, s. 257–271. See also Starostin, Sergei A. 2007. Trudy po jazykoznaniju. Moskva: Jazyki slavjanskix kuľtur, s. 840–849.

[33] Mackenzie, David Neil. 1971. A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary . London: Oxford University Press.

[34] Melchert, H. Craig. 1993. Cuneiform Luvian Lexicon . Chapel Hill: Self-published.

[35] Morgenstierne, Georg. 1974. Etymological Vocabulary of the Shughni Group . Wiesbaden: Reichert Verlag.

[36] MW = Monier-Williams, Sir Monier. 1899 (1993). A Sanskrit-English Dictionary [online]. Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass. [cit. 5.2.2015] Dostupné z:

[37] Pedersen, Holger. 1941. Tocharisch vom Gesichtspunkt der indo-europäischen Sprachvergleichung . Copenhagen: Munksgaard.

[38] Pinault, Georges-Jean. 2008. Chrestomathie tokharienne . Textes et grammaire. Leuven-Paris: Peeters.

[39] Pinault, Georges-Jean. 1989. Introduction au Tokharien . Paris: Lalies.

[40] Pokorny, Julius. 1959. Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch . Bern–München: Francke.

[41] Poucha, Pavel. 1955. Thesaurus Linguae Tocharicae Dialecti A. Institutiones Linguae Tocharicae. Pars I . Praha: Státní pedagogické nakladatelství.

[42] Pulleyblank, Edwin G. 1991. Lexicon of Reconstructed Pronunciation in Early Middle Chinese, Late Middle Chinese and Early Mandarin . Vencouver: UBC Press.

[43] Qi, X. – Wang, B., eds. 2008. The Ancient Culture in Xinjiang along the Silk Road . Sichou zhi lu. Xinjiang gudai wenhua. Wulumuqi: Xinjiang renmin chubanshe.

[44] Ringe, Donald A. 1996. On the Chronology of Sound Changes in Tocharian. Vol. 1: From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Tocharian . New Haven: American Oriental Society.

[45] Schmidt, Klaus T. 1999. Irrwege der Textinterpretation II: Zum Ansatz eines westtocharischen Verbums mutk- 1. 'renforcer' ('verstärken'), 2. 'fermer (la porte)' . Münchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft. 59, s. 95–106.

[46] Schuessler, Axel. 1987. A Dictionary of Early Zhou Chinese . Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press.

[47] Schuessler, Axel. 2007. ABC Etymological Dictionary . Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press.

[48] Sims-Williams, Nicholas. 1997. Four Bactrian economic documents . Bulletin of the Asia Institute. 11, s. 3–15.

[49] Sims-Williams, Nichoas. 2007. Bactrian Documents from Northern Afghanistan. II: Letters and Buddhist Texts . London. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[50] Starostin, Sergei A. 1989. Rekonstrukcija drevnekitajskoj fonologičeskoj sistemy . Moskva: Nauka.

[51] Starostin, Sergei A. 2005. Database of Chinese Characters [online]. [cit. 16.2.2015] Dostupné z:\data\china\bigchina

[52] Steblin-Kamenskij, Ivan Mixajlovič. 1999. Ėtimologičeskij slovaŕ vaxanskogo jazyka . Sankt-Peterburg: Peterburgskoe Vostokovedenie.

[53] Steingass, Francis Joseph. 1892 (1957). A Comprehensive Persian-English Dictionary, Including the Arabic words and phrases to be met with in Persian literature . London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

[54] Tischler, Johann. 2001. Hethitisches Handwörterbuch. Mit dem Wortschatz der Nachbarsprachen . Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachwissenschaft. Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft, 102.

[55] Tremblay, Xavier. 2005. Irano-Tocharica et Tocharo-Iranica . Bulletin of School of Oriental and Asiatic Society. 68(3), s. 421–449. | DOI 10.1017/S0041977X05000248

[56] Turner, R. L. 1966. A comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages . London: Oxford University Press.

[57] de Vaan, Michiel. 2008. Etymological Dictionary of Latin and other Italic Languages . Leiden–Boston: Brill.

[58] de Vries, Jan. 1962. Altnordisches etymologisches Wörterbuch . Leiden: Brill.

[59] Van Windekens, Albert Joris. 1976. Le tokharien confronté avec les autres langues indo-européennes. Vol. I: La phonétique et le vocabulaire . Louvain: Centre International de Dialectologie Générale.

[60] Van Windekens, Albert Joris. 1979. Le tokharien confronté avec les autres langues indo-européennes. Vol. II.1: La morphologie nominale . Louvain: Centre International de Dialectologie Générale.

[61] Van Windekens, Albert Joris. 1988. Reflexions sur l'origine de quelques termes tokhariens . Indogermanische Forschungen, 93, s. 96–101.