Epimenides' tale of the birth of Zeus

Source document: Graeco-Latina Brunensia. 2016, vol. 21, iss. 2, pp. 157-167
Extent
157-167
  • ISSN
    1803-7402 (print)
    2336-4424 (online)
Type
Article
Language
English
License: Not specified license
Abstract(s)
It is suggested that Epimenides of Crete, a well-known Greek prophet, poet and politician (7th–6th century BC), placed Zeus' birthplace near the Cretan city of Arcadia (now Arkalochori). Callimachus' Hymn to Zeus seems to have been modelled on Epimenides' version of the birthstory of the principal god. It not only contains an exact imitation of the prophet's words "the Cretans are always liars" (Κρῆτες ἀεὶ ψεῦσται) and the same arguments, but also records some of Epimenides' aetiological tales, e.g. on the Omphalian plain and the Mountain Panacra. Callimachus of Cyrene partially changed the original legend of Zeus' birth, transferring Arcadia from Crete to Peloponnese. However, some contradictions and inconsistencies which appear in Callimachus' Hymn to Zeus provide credible evidence for establishing Epimenides' version of the myth.
Document
References:
[1] Allen, Th. W., Halliday, W. R., & Sikes, E. E. (Eds.). (1980). The Homeric Hymns . Amsterdam: A. M. Hakkert.

[2] Appel, W. (1984). Epimenides . Filomata, 362, 221–230.

[3] Càssola, F. (1994). Inni omerici . Milano: A. Mondadori Editore.

[4] Colonna, A. (1983). Esiodo, Opere. Teogonia – Catalogo delle donne – Opere e giorni – Poemetti pseudo-esiodei . Milano: Editori Associati S.p.A.

[5] Cook, A. B. (1914). Zeus: A Study in Ancient Religion (Vol. I) . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[6] Corcoran, T. H. (1971). Seneca the Younger, Natural Questions (Vol. I) . London‒Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

[7] Cuypers, M. (2004). Prince and Principle: The Philosophy of Callimachus' Hymn to Zeus . In M. A. Harder, R. F. Regtuit, & G. C. Wakker (Eds.), Beyond the Canon. Groningen Workshop on Hellenistic Poetry (Vol. 7; Hellenistica Groningiana, 11, pp. 95–116). Leuven: Peeters.

[8] D'Alessio, G. B. (1996). Callimaco: Inni, Epigrammi, Ecale (Vol. I) . Milano: Biblioteca Universale Rizzoli.

[9] Davaras, C. (1989). Guide to Cretan Antiquities . Athens: Eftalofos S.A.

[10] Demoulin, H. (1901). Épiménide de Crète (Bibliothèque de la Faculté de Philosophie et Lettres de l'Université de Liège, 12). Bruxelles: Sté Belge de Librairie.

[11] Depew, M. (1993). Mimesis and Aetiology in Callimachus's Hymns . In M. A. Harder, R. F. Regtuit, & G. C. Wakker (Eds.), Callimachus. Groningen Workshop on Hellenistic Poetry (Vol. 1; Hellenistica Groningiana, 1; pp. 57–77). Groningen: E. Forsten.

[12] Diels, H. (Ed.). (1922). Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker: griechisch und deutsch (Vol. II, 4. ed.) . Berlin: Weidmann.

[13] Dietrich, B. C. (1974). The Origins of Greek Religion . Berlin‒New York: W. de Gruyter.

[14] Dunlop Gibson, M. (Ed.). (1913/2011). The Commentaries of Isho'dad of Merv, Bishop of Hadatha (c. 850 A.D.) in Syriac and English, Vol. IV: Acts of the Apostles and three Catholic Epistles in Syriac and English . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[15] Evelyn-White, H. G. (1920). Hesiod: The Homeric Hymns and Homerica . London: W. Heinemann; New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons.

[16] Faure, P. (1964). Fonctions des cavernes crétoises . Paris: Éditions de E. Boccard.

[17] Faure, P. (1996). Ιερά σπήλαια της Κρήτης [Sacred caves of Crete]. Ηράκλειον: Δήμος Ηρακλεί-ου, Βικελαία Βιβλιοθήκη.

[18] Fernández-Galiano, E. (1980). Léxico de los himnos de Calimaco (Vol. IV) . Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas.

[19] Greßmann, H. (1913). Review of Dunlop Gibson (1913) . Berliner philologische Wochenschrift, 33, 936–939.

[20] Griffiths, A. H. (1970). Six Passages in Callimachus and the Anthology . Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies of the University of London, 17, 32–43. | DOI 10.1111/j.2041-5370.1970.tb00080.x

[21] Guarducci, M. (Ed.). (1935). Inscriptiones Creticae opera et consilio Friderici Halbherr collectae, Vol. I: Tituli Cretae mediae praeter Gortynios . Roma: La Libreria dello Stato.

[22] Hazzidakis, J., & Bambakas, J. (1912–1913). An Early Minoan Sacred Cave at Arkalochori in Crete . Annual of the British School at Athens, 19, 35–47. | DOI 10.1017/S0068245400009072

[23] Hopkinson, N. (1984). Callimachus' Hymn to Zeus . Classical Quarterly, 34, 139–148. | DOI 10.1017/S0009838800029384

[24] Hopkinson, N. (Ed.). (1994). A Hellenistic Anthology . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[25] Horowski, J. (1967). Folklor w twórczości Kallimacha z Cyreny . Poznań: UAM.

[26] Howell, E. B. (1964). St. Paul and the Greek World . Greece and Rome, 11(1), 7–29. | DOI 10.1017/S0017383500012626

[27] Hutchinson, R. W. (1963). Prehistoric Crete . Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.

[28] Jones, W. H. S. (1963). Pliny: Natural History (Vol. VIII; Books 28–32) . London‒Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

[29] Kaczyńska, E. (1997). Kallimach, Epimenides i kreteńska Arkadia [Callimachus, Epimenides and the Cretan Arcadia]. In J. Rostropowicz (Ed.), Studia nad kulturą antyczną (pp. 31–40). Opole: Uniwersytet Opolski.

[30] Kaczyńska, E. (1999a). Oronimia kreteńska w twórczości Kallimacha z Cyreny [Cretan oronymy in the poetical works by Callimachus of Cyrene]. Onomastica, 44, 5–28.

[31] Kaczyńska, E. (1999b). The Panacra Mountains in Callimachus and Epimenides . Eos, 86(1), 33–37.

[32] Kaczyńska, E. (2000a). Równina Omfalijska w Kallimachejskim Hymnie do Dzeusa (w. 42–45) [The Omphalian Plain in the Callimachean Hymn to Zeus (l. 42–45)]. Eos, 87(1), 101–111.

[33] Kaczyńska, E. (2000b). Wizerunek Kreteńczyków w twórczości Kallimacha z Cyreny [A presentation of the Cretans in literary works by Callimachus of Cyrene]. Meander, 55(6), 513–535.

[34] Kaczyńska, E. (2002). Il motivo della tomba di Zeus a Creta in Epimenide e Callimaco . Živa Antika, 56(1–2), 83–107.

[35] Kallimachos [Καλλίμαχος]. (2010). Άπαντα, Vol. 3: Ύμνοι, Αβέβαια αποσπάσματα . Athens: Cactus Editions.

[36] Kitchell, K. F. (1977). Topographica Cretica: Topoi of the Classical Crete with Testimonia . Chicago: An unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation.

[37] Kotlińska-Toma, A., & Żybert-Pruchnicka, E. (Eds.). (2016). Kallimachus. Dzieła poetyckie [Callimachus. Poetical works] (Vol. I: Hymny i epigramy). Wrocław: Instytut Studiów Klasycznych, Śródziemnomorskich i Orientalnych Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego.

[38] Leclerc, M.-Ch. (1992). Épiménide sans parodoxe . Kernos, 5, 221–233.

[39] Lombardo, S., & Ross, D. (1988). Callimachus. Hymns, Epigrams, Selected Fragments . Baltimore‒London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

[40] Mair, A. W. (Transl.). (1989). Callimachus, Hymns and Epigrams, Lycophron, Aratus . London‒Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

[41] Marinatos, S. (1962). Zur Frage der Grotte von Arkalochori . Kadmos, 1(2), 87–94. | DOI 10.1515/kadm.1962.1.2.87

[42] McLennan, G. R. (1977). Callimachus, Hymn to Zeus . Roma: Edizioni dell'Ateneo & Bizzarri.

[43] Meineke, A. (Ed.). (1992). Stephani Byzantinii Ethnicorum quae supersunt. A Geographical Lexicon on Ancient Cities, Peoples, Tribes and Toponyms . Chicago: Ares Publishers.

[44] Nicklin, T. (1916). Epimenides' Minos . The Classical Review, 30, 33–37. | DOI 10.1017/S0009840X00009732

[45] Oldfather, C. H. (1970). Diodorus of Sicily in twelve volumes (Vol. III) . London‒Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

[46] Papathanasopoulos, Th. [Παπαθανασόπουλος, Θ.]. (1996). Καλλιμάχου Ύμνοι [Callimachus' Hymns]. Αθήνη: Εκδόσεις Νεφέλη.

[47] Podbielski, H. (1994). Der Dichter und die Musen im Prooimion der Hesiodeischen Theogonie . Eos, 82, 173–199.

[48] Powell, J. U. (1916). On an Alleged New Fragment of Epimenides . The Classical Review, 30, 139–142. | DOI 10.1017/S0009840X00010416

[49] Rendel Harris, J. (1906). The Cretan Always Liars . The Expositor, 2 (Series 7), 305–317.

[50] Rendel Harris, J. (1912). St. Paul and Epimenides . The Expositor, 4 (Series 8), 348–353.

[51] Rutkowski, B., & Nowicki, K. (1996). The Psychro Cave and Other Sacred Grottoes in Crete . Warsaw: Art and Archaeology.

[52] Sistakou, E. [Σιστάκου, Ε.]. (2005). Η γεωγραφία του Καλλιμάχου και η νεωτερική ποίηση των ελληνιστικών χρόνων [The geography of Callimachus and the neoteric poetry of the Hellenistic times]. Αθήνη: Μορφωτικό Ίδρυμα Εθνικής Τραπέζης.

[53] Spanakis, S. G. [Σπανάκης, Σ. Γ.]. (1991). Πόλεις και χωριά της Κρήτης στο πέρασμα των αι-ώνων [Towns and villages of Crete in the passage of centuries] (Vol. I). Ηράκλειο: Γραφικές Τέχνες Γ. Δετοράκης.

[54] Steffen, W. (1983). De Callimachi hymno in Iovem . In P. Händel, & W. Meid (Eds.), Festschrift für Robert Muth zum 65. Geburtstag am 1. Januar 1981, dargebracht von Freunden und Kollegen (pp. 469–477). Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Innsbruck.

[55] Stephens, S. A. (2015). Callimachus, The Hymns . Oxford‒New York: Oxford University Press.

[56] Strataridaki, A. I., Chalkiadakis, E. G., & Ioannidou, P. K. (2006). Water in Ancient Civilizations: The Case of Αncient Arkadia in Crete . In Transactions of the 1st International Symposium on Water and Wastewater Technologies in Ancient Civilizations (pp. 180–190). Heraklion: International Water Association.

[57] Tandy, D. W. (1979). Callimachus, Hymn to Zeus. Introduction and Commentary . New Haven: Yale University (microfilm; unpublished Ph.D. dissertation).

[58] Vasilakis, A. T. (2000). The 147 Cities of Ancient Crete . Herakleion: Kairatos Editions.

[59] Vertoudakis, V. P. [Βερτουδάκης, Β. Π.]. (2000). Epigrammata Cretica . Λογοτεχνικοί τόποι και μύθοι της Κρήτης στο αρχαίο ελληνικό επίγραμμα [Epigrammata Cretica. Literary topoi and myths of Crete in Ancient Greek epigram]. Ηράκλειον: Βικελαία Δημοτική Βιβλιοθήκη.

[60] West, M. L. (1983). The Orphic Poems . Oxford‒New York: Oxford University Press.

[61] Witczak, K. T. (2017). The Hesychian term δήβοιλοι 'musicians who play and sing to their citharas' . Symbolae Philologorum Posnaniensium Graecae et Latinae [in press].

[62] Żybert-Pruchnicka, E. (2016). Hymn na Zeusa [Hymn to Zeus]. In A. Kotlińska-Toma, & E. Żybert-Pruchnicka (Eds.), Kallimachus. Dzieła poetyckie [Callimachus. Poetical works] (Vol. I, pp. 111–113). Wrocław: Instytut Studiów Klasycznych, Śródziemnomorskich i Orientalnych Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego.