A cognitive poetic analysis of LIFE and DEATH in English and Ukrainian: a multiple-parallel-text approach to Hamlet's soliloquy

Zdrojový dokument: Theatralia. 2016, roč. 19, č. 2, s. 9-28
Rozsah
9-28
  • ISSN
    1803-845X (print)
    2336-4548 (online)
Type: Článek
Jazyk
anglicky
Licence: Neurčená licence
Abstrakt(y)
The article zeroes in on the discrepancy between the verbalization of life and death in Hamlet's soliloquy 'To be or not to be' in the English version and three Ukrainian ones. The Multiple-Parallel-Text-based analysis shows that the conceptual metaphors living is existing, dying is not existing, death is sleep, death is a country, death is a journey and life is a burden reconstructed from the original have been largely left intact in the translations. However, we find that the actual verbalization and conceptualization in the two languages are highly culture-specific and that the versions exhibit great inter- and intra-language variations.
Note
  • The completion of this article was partially supported by a research project granted by Chiang Chingkuo Foundation for Scholarly Exchange, entitled 'The Language of Death in Contemporary Taiwan: Evidence from Condolatory Idioms, Presidential Eulogies and the Self-Introductions of Undertakers' (RG002-N-15).
Document
Reference:
[1] Akademičnyj Tlumačnyj Slovnyk (1970–1980) [Academic Ukrainian Dictionary] [online]. [accessed on 16 June 2016]. Available online at http://sum.in.ua.

[2] BELINSKY, Vissarion. 1948. Gamlet, drama Šekspira. Močalov v roli Gamleta [Hamlet, Shakespeare's Drama. Mochalov Starring as Hamlet] [online]. In Sobranije Sočinenij v treh tomah [Collected Works in Three Volumes]. Vol. 1. Moscow: OGIZ, GIHIL, 1948. [accessed on 13 January 2016]. Available online at http://az.lib.ru/b/belinskij_w_g/text_1180.shtml.

[3] BERRY, Philippa. 1999. Shakespeare's Feminine Endings: Disfiguring Death in the Tragedies. New York: Routledge, 1999.

[4] BLOOM, Harold (ed.). 2008. Bloom's Shakespeare Through the Ages: Hamlet. New York: Bloom's Literary Criticism, 2008.

[5] BORYSENKO, Valentyna. 2000. Tradyciï i žytt'edijal'nist' etnosu: Na materialah sviatkovo-obriadovoji kul'tury urkaïnciv [Traditions and Life of an Ethnos: Based on Festive and Ceremonial Culture of the Ukrainians]. Kyiv: Uniserv, 2000.

[6] BOYCE, Charles. 1990. Shakespeare A to Z: The Essential Reference to His Plays, His Poems, His Life and Times, and More. New York: Laurel, 1990.

[7] BUSSE, Ulrich. 2002. Linguistic Variation in the Shakespeare Corpus: Morpho-syntactic Variability of Second Person Pronouns. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2002.

[8] CALDERWOOD, James L. 1987. Shakespeare and the Denial of Death. Amherst: Univ. of Massachusetts Press, 1987.

[9] CALLAGHAN, Dympna. 2013. Who was William Shakespeare? An Introduction to the Life and Works. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2013.

[10] CAPONE, Alessandro. 2010. On pragmemes again. Dealing with death. La linguistique 46 (2010): 2: 3–21.

[11] CHAMONIKOLASOVÁ, Jana. 2007. Intonation in English and Czech Dialogues. Brno: Masaryk University Press, 2007.

[12] COOK, Amy. 2006. Staging Nothing: Hamlet and Cognitive Science. SubStance 35 (2006): 2: 83–99. | DOI 10.1353/sub.2006.0031

[13] COOK, Amy. 2011. Cognitive Interplay: How Blending Theory and Cognitive Science Reread Shakespeare. In Jonathan Culpeper and Mireille Ravassat (eds.). Language and Stylistics in Shakespeare. New York: Continuum, 2011: 246–72.

[14] COURTNEY, Richard. 1995. Shakespeare's World of Death: The Early Tragedies. Toronto: Dundurn, 1995.

[15] CROSMAN, Robert. 2005. The World's a Stage: Shakespeare and the Dramatic View of Life. Bethesda: Academica Press, 2005.

[16] CRYSTAL, David. 2003. The language of Shakespeare. In Stanley Wells and Lena Orlin (eds.). Shakespeare: An Oxford Guide. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003: 67–78.

[17] DICKSON, Andrew. 2014. Why Shakespeare is the world's favourite writer [online]. BBC.com. [accessed on 22 February 2016]. Available online at http://www.bbc.com/culture/story/20140422-shakespeare-the-worlds-writer.

[18] ESTILL, Laura and Eric JOHNSON. 2015. Fun international facts about Shakespeare [online]. British Council. Published 19 March 2015. [accessed on 19 February 2016]. Available online at https://www.britishcouncil.org/voices-magazine/fun-international-facts-about-shakespeare.

[19] FIRBAS, Jan. 1992. Functional sentence perspective in written and spoken communication. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

[20] FREEMAN, Donald C. 1995. 'Catch[ing] the nearest way': Macbeth and cognitive metaphor. Journal of Pragmatics 24 (1995): 6: 689–708. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(95)00015-K. | DOI 10.1016/0378-2166(95)00015-K

[21] FREEMAN, Margaret H. and Masako TAKEDA. 2006. Art, Science, and Ste. Emilie's Sunsets: a Hájinspired Cognitive Approach to Translating an Emily Dickinson Poem into Japanese. Style 40 (2006): 1–2: 109–27. [accessed on 21 July 2016]. Available online at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1427815.

[22] GARAMJAN, Arusjak. 2011. Perevod komedij Šekspira kak osnova professional'noj kompetencii specialista (perevodčika) [Translation of Shakespeare's Comedies as the ground for professional (translator's) competence] [online]. Universitetskije čtenija [University Discussions] (2011). [accessed on 20 January 2016]. Available online at http://pglu.ru/editions/un_reading/detail.php?SECTION_ID=2865&ELEMENT_ID=10024.

[23] GIBBS, Raymond W., Jr. 2006. Embodiment and Cognitive Science. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

[24] GOATLY, Andrew. 2011. The Language of Metaphors (2nd Edition). London/New York: Routledge, 2011.

[25] GOROHOV, P. A. 2005. Nash sovremennik princ datskiy (filosofskaja problematika tragedii 'Gamlet' [Our Contemporary Danish Prince (Philosophical Issues in Hamlet)]. Vestnik Orenburgskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta [Orenburg State University Herald] (2005): 7: 8–14.

[26] GORPYNYČ, Volodymyr O. 2004. Morfologija ukraïns'koji movy [Ukrainian Morphology]. Kyiv: Akademia, 2004.

[27] GROMYK, Yurij. 2013. Ukraïns'kyj pravopys [Ukrainian Language Rules]. Kyiv: Centr učbovoji literatury, 2013.

[28] HIRSH, James. 2010. 'The 'To be, or not to be' Speech: Evidence, Conventional Wisdom, and the Editing of Hamlet. Medieval and Renaissance Drama in England 23 (2010): 34–62.

[29] HONAN, Park. 2003. Shakespeare: A Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

[30] ILARION, the metropolitan. 1994. Dohrystyjans'ki viruvannja ukraïns'kogo narodu [Pre-Christian Beliefs of the Ukrainian People]. Kyiv: Oberegy, 1994.

[31] KOLOMIJEC', Lada. 2006. Dva Leonidy Grebinky: Do pytannja pro avtentyčnyj pereklad i redaktors'ku pravku (na materiali perekladu 'Gamleta' V. Šekspira) [Two Grebinkas: On Authentic Translation and Editor's Changes (Based on W. Shakespeare's Hamlet)]. Inozemna filologija [Foreign Philology] (2006): 40: 31–5.

[32] KOLOMIJEC', Lada. 2005. Novyj ukraïns'kyj 'Gamlet': perekladac'ka strategija Jurija Andruhovyča [New Ukrainian Hamlet: Yurij Andruhovych's Translation Strategy] [online]. Mova i Kul'tura [Language and Culture] 3 (2005): 8: 349–56. [accessed on 4 August 2015]. Available online at http://shakespeare.zp.ua/texts.item.64/.

[33] KÖVESCES, Zoltán. 2002. Metaphor: A Practical Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

[34] KYSELIOVA, Kateryna. 2014. 'Ty bidnyj pryvid, čy prokljatyj goblin?' – Gamlet u perekladi Andruhovyča ['Are you a poor ghost or a cursed goblin?' – Hamlet in Andruhovy's Translation] [online]. Gazeta.ua. 2014. [accessed on 4 August 2015]. Available online at http://gazeta.ua/articles/culture/_ti-bidnij-privid-chi-proklyatij-goblin-gamlet-u-perekladiandruhovicha/561373?mobile=true.

[35] LAKOFF, George and Mark JOHNSON. 1980. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980.

[36] LAKOFF, George. 2003. Metaphor and semantics. In International Encyclopedia of Linguisitcs: AAVE-Esperanto. Vol. 1. N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 2003: 53–4.

[37] LU, Wei-lun. Submitted a. Socio-cultural factors in analyzing the pragmeme of accommodation: A case study of the official online eulogy request system in Taiwan. Submitted to: The Pragmeme of Accommodation and Intercultural Pragmatics: The Case of Interaction around the Event of Death. Vahid Parvaresh and Alessandro Capone (eds.). New York: Springer.

[38] LU, Wei-lun. Submitted b. Cultural conceptualizations of death by Taiwanese Buddhists and Christians: Categories and schemas in Mandarin eulogistic idioms. Submitted to: Advances in Cultural Linguistics. Farzad Sharifian (ed.). New York: Springer.

[39] LU, Wei-lun, Arie VERHAGEN and I-wen SU. In press. A Multiple-Parallel-Text approach for viewpoint research across languages: The case of demonstratives in English and Chinese. In Szilvia Csábi (ed.). Expressive Minds and Artistic Creations: Studies in Cognitive Poetics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[40] LU, Wei-lun and Arie VERHAGEN. 2016. Shifting viewpoints: How does that actually work across languages? An exercise in parallel text analysis. In Barbara Dancygier, Wei-lun Lu and Arie Verhagen (eds.). Viewpoint and the Fabric of Meaning: Form and use of viewpoint tools across languages and modalities. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2016: 169–90.

[41] MCCONACHIE, Bruce and F. Elizabeth HART. 2006. Performance and Cognition: Theatre Studies and the Cognitive Turn. Abingdon: Routledge, 2006.

[42] MOROZOV, Mihail. 1954. Jazyk i stil' Šekspira [Shakespeare's Language and Style]. In Mihail Morozov. Izbrannyje stat'i i perevody [Collected Articles and Translations]. Moscow: Goslitizdat, 1954: 93–148.

[43] OMELJANENKO, O. V. 2014. Verbalizacija ujavlen' pro smert' kriz' pryzmu Ukraïns'kyh frazeologizmiv iz nazvamy ponjat' irreal'nogo svitu [Language manifestation of cognizing death reflected in Ukrainian phraseological units naming the notions of the unreal world]. Lingvistychni Doslidzhennia [Linguistic Research] (2014): 38: 29–35.

[44] Online Etymology Dictionary [online]. [accessed on 3 April 2016]. Available online at http://www.etymonline.com.

[45] PONIKAROVS'KA, N. A. 2012. Strah jak zmistoutvorjujučyj factor obrjadovyh dij, povjazanyh iz založnymy pokijnykamy v obrjadovosti davnih slovjan [Fear as a sense-forming factor of rituals connected with zalozhny dead in rituals of Old Slavs]. Kul'tura Ukrainy [Culture of Ukraine] (2012): 39: 82–9.

[46] POTTER, Lois. 2012. The Life of William Shakespeare: A Critical Biography. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2012.

[47] PREMINGER, Alex and T. V. F. BROGAN (eds.). 1993. The New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.

[48] ŠEKSPIR, Uïljam. Gamlet, prync dans'kyj [Hamlet, the Danish Prince]. Tr. by G. Kočur. In U. Šekspir. Tragediji [Tragedies]. Harkiv: Folio, 2004: 165–310.

[49] ŠEKSPIR, Viljam. 1986. Gamlet, prync dats'kyi [Hamlet, the Danish Prince]. Tr. by L. Grebinka. In id. Tvory v shesty tomah [Collected Works in Six Volumes]. Vol. 5. Kyiv: Dnipro, 1986: 5–118.

[50] ŠEKSPIR, Viljam. 2008. Gamlet, prync dans'kyj [Hamlet, the Danish Prince]. Tr. by Yu. Andruhovych. Kyiv: A-BA-BA-GA-LA-MA-GA, 2008.

[51] SHAKESPEARE, William. Act III. Scene 1. Hamlet [online]. [accessed on 28 June 2016]. Available online at http://www.shakespeareswords.com/Plays.aspx?Ac=3&SC=1&IdPlay=2#117126.

[52] SHARIFIAN, Farzad. 2011. Cultural Conceptualizations and Language. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2011.

[53] SOKOLJANS'KYJ, Mark. 2008. U poloni groteskovoji strategiji [online]. 2008. [accessed on 4 August 2015]. Available online at http://litakcent.com/2008/12/12/u-poloni-hroteskovojistratehiji/.

[54] TANAKA, Mikihiro N., Holly P. BRANIGAN, Janet F. MCLEAN and Martin J. PICKERING. 2011. Conceptual influences on word order and voice in sentence production: Evidence from Japanese [online]. Journal of Memory and Language 65 (2011): 3: 318–30. [accessed on 29 June 2016]. Available online at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/241097087_Conceptual_influences_on_word_order_and_voice_in_sentence_production_Evidence_from_Japanese.

[55] TURNER, Mark. 2011. The Embodied Mind and the Origins of Human Culture. In Ana Margarida Abrantes and Peter Hanenberg (eds.). Cognition and Culture: An Interdisciplinary Dialogue. Frankfurt & Berlin: Peter Lang, 2011: 13–27.