The phonetics of PIE *d I: typological considerations

Zdrojový dokument: Linguistica Brunensia. 2021, roč. 69, č. 2, s. 5-21
  • ISSN
    1803-7410 (print)
    2336-4440 (online)
Type: Článek
While the phonetic details of most PIE obstruents have been the topic of numerous studies, the coronal stops have attracted less attention, possibly as the result of their non-controversial status, vis-à-vis velars or laryngeals. Yet, several early Indo-European languages display asymmetries in the development of the coronal stop series, with the voiced member typically behaving differently from the voiceless and the aspirate. Such an asymmetry may thus well be of PIE origin and in the light of the recent arguments for PIE implosives, could result from the earlier implosive character of Pre-PIE mediae, which finds support in phonetic typology. This paper presents typological background for the phenomena and the situation regarding the reconstructed PIE phonology.
  • I also acknowledge the support of the research program Progres Q10 Jazyk v proměnách času, místa a kultury, sponsored by the Charles University.
[1] Beekes, Robert S. P. – de Vaan, Michiel. 2011. Comparative Indo-European Linguistics: An introduction. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

[2] Bičovský, Jan. 2017. Praindoevropština. Vol. I. Praha: Filozofická fakulta Univerzity Karlovy.

[3] Bičovský, Jan. 2021. The Phonetics of PIE *d, II: the Evidence from Daughter Languages. Linguistica Brunensia 70 (this volume).

[4] Brugmann, Karl. 1897. Vergleichende Laut-, StammBildungs und Flexionslehre der Indogermanischen Sprachen. Strassburg: Karl J. Trubner.

[5] Byrd, Andrew. 2015. The Indo-European Syllable. Leiden: Brill.

[6] Byrd, Andrew. 2017. The phonology of Proto-Indo-European. In: Klein, Jared – Wenthe, Mark, eds. Handbook of Comparative and Historical Indo-European Linguistics: An International Handbook. Vol. 3. New York: Walter de Gruyter, 2056–2079.

[7] Cedegren, Henrietta J. – Archambault, Danielle – Boulianne, Gilles. 1991. Stop assibilation in Quebec French: an analysis by articulatory synthesis. In: Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Vol. 3. 186–189.

[8] Demolin, Didier. 1995. The phonetics and phonology of glottalized sounds in Lendu. In: Connell, Bruce, ed. Phonology and Phonetic Evidence: Papers in Laboratory Phonology IV, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 368–385.

[9] Habtoor, Mohamed N. 1989. L'arabe parlé à Ġaylhabban: phonologie et morphologie. (Ph.D. thesis, Paris, Sorbonne).

[10] Hall, Thomas A. – Hamman, Silke – Żigys, Marzena. 2004. The phonetic motivation for phonological stop assibilation. ZAS Papers in Linguistics 37, 187–219 | DOI 10.21248/zaspil.37.2004.249

[11] Hayes, Bruce. 1999. Phonetically-driven phonology: the role of optimality theory and inductive grounding. In: Darnell, Michael – Moravscik, Edith A. – Noonan, Michael – Newmeyer, Frederick – Wheatley, Kathleen, eds. Functionalism and Formalism in linguistics, vol. 1: General Papers. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 243–285.

[12] Keating, Pat A. 1991. Coronal places of articulation. In: Paradis, Carole – Prunet, JeanFrançois, eds. The special status of coronals: Internal and external evidence. San Diego: Academic Press, 29–48.

[13] Kim, Hyunsoon. 2001. A phonetically based account of phonological stop assibilation. Phonology 18, 81–108. | DOI 10.1017/S095267570100402X

[14] Kortlandt, Frederik H. H. 1983. Greek numerals and PIE glottalic consonants. Münchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft 42, 97–104.

[15] Kortlandt, Frederik H. H. 1997. How old is the English glottal stop? In: Goblirsch, Kurt Gustav – Berryman Mayou Martha – Taylor Marvin, eds. North-Western European Language Evolution 31–32: Germanic studies in honor of Anatoly Liberman. Odense: Odense University Press, 175–179.

[16] Κümmel, Martin J. 2012a. Typology and reconstruction: The consonants and vowels of Proto-Indo-European. In: The sound of Indo-European: phonetics, phonemics and morphophonemics. Edited by Benedicte Nielsen Whitehead, Thomas Olander, Birgit Anette Olsen and Jens Elmegård Rasmussen. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 291–329.

[17] Κümmel, Martin J. 2012b. The distribution of roots ending in IE *ND. In: Sukač, Roman – Šefčík, Ondřej, eds. The Sound of Indo-European, 2: Papers on Indo-European Phonetics, Phonemics and Morphophonemics. München: LINCOM, 159–176.

[18] Ligorio, Orsat. 2019. Further evidence for PIE *d > *h1. Belgrade: University of Belgrade.

[19] Lipp, Reiner. 2016. Final Stops in Indo-European: Their Phonological Classification as a Key to the Proto-Indo-European Root Structure Constraint. Slovo a Slovesnost 77 (4), 251–299.

[20] Lubotsky, Alexander. 2013. The Vedic Paradigm for 'Water'. In: Cooper, Adam I. – Nussbaum, Alan J., eds. Multi Nominis Grammaticus: Studies in Classical Indo-European Linguistics in Honor of Alan J. Nussbaum on the Occasion of His Sixty-fifth Birthday. Ann Arbor – New York: Beech Stave Press, 159–164.

[21] Maddieson, Ian. 1984. Patterns of Sounds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[22] Mayrhofer, Manfred. 1986. Indogermanische Grammatik, Band I. 1. Halbband: Einleitung, 2. Halbband: Lautlehre (Segmentale Phonologie des Indogermanischen). Heidelberg: Winter.

[23] Μeier-Brügger, Michael, ed. 2010. Indogermanische Sprachwissenschaft. 9., durchgesehene und erganzte Auflage. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

[24] Meillet, Antoine. 1937. Introduction a l'etude comparative des langues indo-europeennes. Paris: Hachette.

[25] Prósper, Blanca M. 2019. What became of "Sabine l"? An overlooked Proto-Italic sound law. JIES 2019, 468–506.

[26] Ringe, Donald A. 2006. From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, A linguistic history of English. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[27] Schindler Jochem. 1977. A thorny problem. Die Sprache 23, 25–35.

[28] Skarnitzl, Radek. 2014. Asymmetry in the Czech Alveolar Stops. Acta Universitatis Carolinae, Philologica, 101–112.

[29] Skarnitzl, Radek – Rálišová, Diana. (forthcoming). Phonetic variation of Irish English /t/ in the medial and final position, to appear in Journal of the International Phonetic Association.

[30] Suomi, Karl – Toivanen, Juhani – Ylitalo, Riikka. 2008. Finnish Sound Structure. Phonetics, phonology, phonotactics, and prosody. Oulu: University of Oulu.

[31] Weiss, Michael. 2009. The Cao Bang Theory: Some Speculations on the Prehistory of the PIE Stop System Presentation at ECIEC XXVIII, Reykjavik, June 13, 2009. (, accessed October 29, 2020).