Concordância negativa em português e a sue evolução

Source document: Études romanes de Brno. 2010, vol. 31, iss. 2, pp. [193]-207
Extent
[193]-207
  • ISSN
    1803-7399 (print)
    2336-4416 (online)
Type: Article
Language
Portuguese
License: Not specified license
Abstract(s)
The Sentential negation, and the negative concord in particular, is a complex phenomenon which is far from being diachronically invariable. We could observe on the example of Portuguese that the main reason for the diachronic variation in the field of negation is the changing semantical status of the sentential negative marker não, according to the theory developed by Zeijlstra and Penka. The non-strict negative concord language as it is now has developed from Archaic Portuguese which could be considered as a strict NC language. The negative marker was originally required to accompany the semantically negated verb at any time, even in the co-occurrence with pre-verbal n-words. The negative marker was semantically non-negative which means that it had to participate, together with the remaining negative elements in the sentence, in a feature checking relation with an abstract negative operator, free of phonological content. Later on, in the contemporary standard Portuguese, the negative marker adopted the function of semantically negative operator against which other negative elements in the sentence need to be checked. Where the negative marker couldn't license the n-words due to syntactical constraints it was not desirable, for the economy reasons, to appear anymore and was simply replaced by the abstract negative operator. The admitting of new structures of sentential negation in the contemporary colloquial Brazilian Portuguese is a proof that the system of sentential negation in Portuguese tends to evolve further in the common direction described by Jespersen. The Contemporary Colloquial Brazilian Portuguese is without doubts still a non-strict NC language which makes use of the negation marker não in a different way than it is common in the Standard Portuguese: it places it in the sentence final position to give a negative interpretation to the content of the sentence and to emphasize it at the same time.
Document
References:
[1] ARMSTRONG, Meghan; SCHWENTER, Scott. Prosodic Correlates of Information Structure in Brazilian Portuguese Negation [online]. Berkeley Linguistics Department, University of California − Berkeley [cit. 1.1. 2010]. Available at: http://linguistics.berkeley.edu/bls/past_meetings/bls34/abstracts34/Armstrong_Schwenter.pdf

[2] DIAS, Augusto Epifânio da Silva. Syntaxe histórica portuguesa. Lisbon: Livraria Clássica, 1918.

[3] DOČEKAL, Mojmír. History of Czech negative noun phrases. In Development of Language through the Lens of Formal Linguistics. Ed. Petr KARLÍK. Munich: Lincom Europe, 2010, p. 49-62.

[4] JESPERSEN, Otto. Negation in English and other languages. Koebenhavn, 1917.

[5] JOHNSON, Kyle. Introduction to Transofmational Grammar. Fall: University of Massachusetts at Amherst, 2004.

[6] LAKA, Itziar, Negation in Syntax: On the Nature of Functional Categories and Projections. Doctoral dissertation, Cambridge MA, 1990.

[7] MATOS, Gabriela. Aspectos sintácticos da negação. In Gramática da Língua Portuguesa. Ed. Maria Helena MIRA MATEUS. Lisbon: Caminho, 2003, p. 769-793.

[8] ***NUNES, José Joaquim. Compêndio de Gramática Histórica Portuguesa (Fonética e morfologia). Lisbon: Clássica Editora, 1989.

[9] PENKA, Doris. Negative Indefinites. Doctoral dissertation, Universität Tübingen, 2007.

[10] PEREIRA DE ABREU, Sabrina. A negação sentencial: da Teoria de Pricípios e Parâmetros para o Programa Minimalista − uma investigação através do Português Brasileiro. In Actas XIV Encontro Nacional da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística. Braga: Associação Portuguesa de Linguística, 1998, p. 9-19.

[11] RAMOS, Jânia Martins. O processo não > num na fala. In Gramaticalização: uma abordagem formal. Ed. Jânia Martins RAMOS; Lorenzo VITRAL. Rio de Janeiro: UFMG, 2006.

[12] RIZZI, Luigi. The Fine Structure of the Left Periphery. In Elements of Grammar. Ed. Liliane HAEGMANN. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997, p. 281-337.

[13] SCHWENGLER, Armin. Analyticity and syntheticity: a diachronic perspective with special reference to Romance languagues. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1986.

[14] ZANUTTINI, Raffaella. Syntactic Properties of Sentential Negation: A Comparative Study of Romance Languages. Doctoral disertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1991.

[15] ZEIJLSTRA, Hedde. Sentential Negation and Negative Concord. Doctoral dissertation, University of Amsterdam, 2004.