Dhikr by Naqshbandiyya Haqqaniyya : context and structure of the ritual
Source document: Religio. 2011, vol. 19, iss. 2, pp. -222
ISSN1210-3640 (print)2336-4475 (online)
License: Not specified license
The Islamic mysticism or Sufism is a very diverse spiritual phenomenon. Dozens of orders (tariqas) and their branches exist in its not easily definable framework. In spite of certain common foundations and tendencies, tariqas often differ significantly in interpretations of theological, philosophical and other concepts, in approaches to institutional aspects, in religious practice, in theoretical and practical aspects of related rituals, and so on. Such diversity encourages one to try to describe and analyze various manifestations of Sufism in appropriate specific contexts. This article represents just such a contribution. It deals with dhikr, a kind of prayer or meditation, in the context of both theory and practice of the contemporary successful tariqa Naqshbandiyya Haqqaniyya. The article consists of three main parts. The first offers a brief introduction to dhikr as a traditional Sufi ritual; essential characteristics and some typologies are presented here. The second deals with dhikr in the general context of Naqshbandi tradition and in the particular context of one of the contemporary Naqshbandi branches, Haqqaniyya. Here the main features, principles and meanings of Haqqani individual and congregational dhikr are presented. Finally, the specific structure of Haqqani congregational dhikr is described in detail with various elements of its silent and vocal parts.