From the ideal to the spectacular : Hellenic antiquity and the discourse of authenticity

Variant title
Od ideálního k velkolepému : řecký starověk a problematika autenticity
Source document: Museologica Brunensia. 2019, vol. 8, iss. 2, pp. 2-14
Extent
2-14
  • ISSN
    1805-4722 (print)
    2464-5362 (online)
Type: Article
Language
English
Abstract(s)
In countries like Greece, where the material remains of the past play a predominant role in fostering a unifying national identity, the inspirational moment is antiquity. The aura of the authentic enlivens the discussion by fostering strong epistemological and political idioms vis-à-vis heritage applications. The present article argues that the quest for authenticity in Hellenic heritage cuts through different styles, aesthetic approaches and technological means in order to put forth powerful stereotypes which can be traced both in speech and in exhibition contexts and affect the contemporary reception of material remnants. In this view, two generically distinct case-studies are discussed: The Parthenon marbles as presented in the speech of the then Minister of Culture, Antonios Samaras, at the Opening Ceremony of the New Acropolis Museum in 2009, and Digital Miletus, a by now classical virtual reality application featuring the reconstruction of the ancient city of Miletus, at the Foundation of the Hellenic World in Athens around the millennium. While the above examples seem initially opposing in terms of the kind of authenticity they invoke, they underline the same core notion, namely the identification of truths and values which travel, as in a time capsule, inside the ancient remnants. If heritage is to be critically assessed we need to move beyond the notion of finite contexts and unbreakable continuities and understand heritage representations more reflexively. We need to rethink both form and content because both carry argumentation and are not just objective, neutral means for entertainment and instruction.
V zemích jako je Řecko, kde hmotné pozůstatky minulosti sehrávají klíčovou úlohu jednotícího činitele v budování národní identity, je hlavním inspiračním zdrojem období antiky. Fluidum autentičnosti oživuje diskusi podporováním hluboce zakořeněných gnozeologických a politických stereotypů tváří v tvář praktické ochraně kulturního dědictví. Autorka v článku uvádí, že při hledání autenticity starořeckých památek se uplatňují různé styly, estetické přístupy i technologie s cílem vytvářet silné a vlivné stereotypy, které je možné vysledovat jak ve veřejném mluveném projevu tak ve výstavnictví a které významnou měrou ovlivňují současné vnímání hmotného kulturního dědictví. Předmětem diskuse jsou v této souvislosti dvě případové studie o různých tématech: Parthenon marbles (Mramory z Parthenónu), prezentovaná v rámci proslovu bývalého ministra kultury Antonia Samarase při slavnostním otevření Nového muzea Akropole v roce 2009, a Digital Miletus (Digitální Milét), klasická virtuální aplikace zobrazující rekonstrukci starověkého města Milétu, prezentovaná na přelomu tisíciletí v athénské nadaci Foundation of the Hellenic World. Uvedené příklady se na první pohled zdají být ve vzájemném protikladu vzhledem k typu autenticity, na niž se odvolávají. Oba však sledují stejný cíl, a sice identifikaci skutečností a hodnot, jež jsou obsaženy ve starověkých památkách a cestují časem společně s nimi. Pokud chceme přistupovat ke kulturnímu dědictví kritickým způsobem, musíme nahlížet za hranice neměnných souvislostí a neporušitelných kontinuit a vnímat projevy kulturního dědictví pružněji. Musíme přehodnotit jak jejich formu tak i obsah, protože obě tyto kategorie v sobě skrývají prvky argumentace a nejsou pouze objektivními, neutrálními prostředky sloužícími k zábavě a poučení.
Document
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