News translation and national image in the time of Covid-19

Title: News translation and national image in the time of Covid-19
Author: Fois, Eleonora
Source document: Brno studies in English. 2022, vol. 48, iss. 1, pp. 5-23
  • ISSN
    0524-6881 (print)
    1805-0867 (online)
Type: Article

Notice: These citations are automatically created and might not follow citation rules properly.

The press, as a culturally structured system, contributes to the formation of audience self-images – defining one's domestic identity – and hetero images – defining the Other. Using journalistic translation and journalism studies, this contribution explores the national image provided by the Italian press in news translated into English by the Ansa news agency website during the current COVID-19 pandemic. The few studies on news translations including the English-Italian language pair studied the linguistic characteristics of translated language (i.e. universals), thus making the analysis of national image in news translation an unexplored area. The methodological framework will be based on Critical Discourse Analysis' qualitative approach as well as two essential concepts from Journalism Studies. To begin with, the concept of gatekeeping can be used to explain the various flows of information and news provided in translated articles. Second, understanding the framework of news manipulation and rewriting will be made possible by understanding the concept of frame. The goal is to disclose how the Italian national image is communicated.
[1] Becker, Amy B. and Dietram A. Scheufele (2011) New voters, new outlook? Predispositions, social networks, and the changing politics of gay civil rights Social Science Quarterly 92 (2), 324–345. | DOI 10.1111/j.1540-6237.2011.00771.x

[2] Beller, Manfred (2007) Perception, image, imagology In: Manfred Beller and Joseph Theodor Leerssen (eds.) Imagology: The Cultural Construction and Literary Representation of National characters. Amsterdam, Rodopi, 3–16. | DOI 10.1163/9789004358133

[3] Bielsa, Esperança and Susan Bassnett (eds.) (2009) Translation in Global News. London and New York: Routledge.

[4] Carducci, Annalaura, Alfani, Simona, Sassi, Manuela and Alessandra Cinini, and Andrea Calamusa (2011) Mass media health information: Quantitative and qualitative analysis of daily press coverage and its relation with public perceptions Patient Education and Counseling 82, 475–478. | DOI 10.1016/j.pec.2010.12.025

[5] Conway, Kyle (2010) News translation and cultural resistance. Journal of International and Intercultural Communication 3 (3), 187–205.

[6] Conway, Kyle (2015) What is the role of culture in news translation? A materialist approach Perspectives 23 (4), 521–535. | DOI 10.1080/0907676x.2015.1026833

[7] Cotter, Coleen (2010) News Talk: Investigating the Language of Journalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[8] Crigler, Ann N., Just, Marion R. and Russell Neuman (1992) Common Knowledge: News and the Construction of Political Meaning. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

[9] Dai Guo, Xiaodong and Guo-Ming Chen (2014) The construction of national image in the media and the management of intercultural conflicts In: Robert S. Fortner and Mark P. Fackler (eds.) The Handbook of Media and Mass Communication Theory. Landham MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 708–725. | DOI 10.1002/9781118591178.ch38

[10] Davier, Lucile (2015) 'Cultural translation' in news agencies? A plea to broaden the definition of translation Perspectives 23 (4), 536–551. | DOI 10.1080/0907676x.2015.1040036

[11] De Cillia, Rudolf, Reisigl, Martin and Ruth Wodak (1999) The discursive construction of national identities. Discourse and Society 10 (2), 149–173.

[12] Entman, Robert M. (1993) Framing: Toward clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication 43 (4), 51–58.

[13] Filmer, Denise A. (2014) Journalators? An ethnographic study of journalists who translate. Cultus 7, 135–157.

[14] Gambier, Yves (2006) Transformations in international news. In: Kile Conway and Susan Bassnett (eds.) Translation in Global News. Coventry: University of Warwick Centre for Translation and Comparative Cultural Studies, 9–22.

[15] Gambier, Yves (2010) Media, information et traduction á l'ère de la mondialisation. In: Robert Valdéon (ed.) Translating information. Oviedo: Ediuno, 13–30.

[16] Goffman, Erving (1974) Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of. Experience. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.

[17] Hermann, Richard K. (2003) Image theory and strategic interaction in international relations. In: Davie O.Sears, Leonie Huddy and Jack R. Jervis (eds.) Oxford Handbook of Political Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University, 285–314.

[18] Hernández Guerrero, María José (2009) Traducción y periodismo. Berna: Peter Lang.

[19] Holland, Robert (2013) News translation. In: Millán-Varela, Carmela and Francesca Bartrina (eds.) The Routledge Handbook of Translation Studies. London: Routledge, 332–346.

[20] House, Juliane and Jens Loenhoff (2016) Communication studies and translation studies: A special relationship In: Yves Gambier and Luc van Doorslaer (eds.) Border Crossings: Translation Studies and other disciplines. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 97–116. | DOI 10.7202/1065578ar

[21] Iyengar, Shanto (1991) Is Anyone Responsible? How Television Frames Political Issues. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

[22] Laviosa, Sara (1998) Core patterns of lexical use in a comparable corpus of English narrative prose Meta: journal des traducteurs/Meta: Translators' Journal 43 (4), 557–570. | DOI 10.7202/003425ar

[23] Lee, Seow Ting and Iccha Basnyat (2013) From Press Release to News: Mapping the framing of the 2009 H1N1A influenza pandemic. Health Communication 28 (2), 119–132.

[24] Leersen, Joep (2007) Imagology: history and method In: Manfred Beller and Joseph Theodoor Leerssen (eds.) Imagology: The Cultural Construction and Literary Representation of National characters. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 17–32. | DOI 10.1163/9789004358133_003

[25] Leersen, Joep (2018) National Thought in Europe: A Cultural History. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

[26] Li, Xiufang Leah and Naren Chitty (2009) Reframing national image: A methodological framework. Conflict and Communication Online 8 (2), 1–11.

[27] Liu, Nancy Xiuzhi (2017) Same perspective, different effect: Framing the economy through financial news translation Perspectives 25 (3), 452–463. | DOI 10.1080/0907676x.2017.1287203

[28] Matsushita, Kayo (2020) Reporting quotable yet untranslatable speech. Observations of shifting practices by Japanese newspapers from Obama to Trump AILA Review 33: 157–175. | DOI 10.1075/aila.00035.mat

[29] McLaughlin, Mairi Louise (2015) News translation past and present: Silent witness and invisible intruder Perspectives 23 (4), 552–569. | DOI 10.1080/0907676x.2015.1015578

[30] Meng, Xiangfei (2020) National Image: China's Communication of Cultural Symbols. Singapore: Springer.

[31] Ondelli, Stefano (2008) Per un'analisi dell'italiano tradotto nei quotidiani: considerazioni preliminari sulla costituzione di un corpus. Rivista Internazionale di Tecnica della Traduzione 10, 81–99.

[32] Ondelli, Stefano and Matteo Viale (2010) L'assetto dell'italiano delle traduzioni in un corpus giornalistico. Aspetti qualitativi e quantitativi. Rivista Internazionale di Tecnica della Traduzione 12, 1–62.

[33] Orengo, Alberto (2005) Localising news: Translation and the 'global-national' dichotomy Language and Intercultural Communication 52, 168–187. | DOI 10.1080/14708470508668892

[34] Pan, Zhongdang and Gerald M. Kosicki (1993) Framing analysis: An approach to news discourse. Political Communication 10 (1), 55–75.

[35] Reese, Stephen D., Gandy, Oscar and August Grant (eds.) (2001) Framing public life: Perspectives on media and our understanding of the social world. Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

[36] Richardson, John E. (2006) Analysing Newspapers: An Approach from Critical Discourse Analysis. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

[37] Scammell, Claire (2018) Translation Strategies in Global News. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

[38] Scott, William A. (1965) Psychological and social correlates of international images. In: Kelman, Herbert C. (ed.) International Behavior: A Social-Psychological Analysis. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 70–103.

[39] Semetko, Holli A. and Patti M. Valkenburg (2000) Framing European politics: A content analysis of press and television news. Journal of Communication 502, 93–109.

[40] Shoemaker, Pamela J. and Timothy Vos (2009) Gatekeeping Theory. New York: Routledge.

[41] Scheufele, Dietram A. (1999) Framing as a theory of media effects. Journal of Communication 49 (1), 103–122.

[42] Schuck, Andreas R.T. and Claes H. de Vreese (2006) Between risk and opportunity: News framing and its effects on public support for EU enlargement. European Journal of Communication 21 (1), 5–32.

[43] Spratt, Meg (2001) Science, journalism, and the construction of news. American Journalism 18 (3), 61–79.

[44] Stetting, Karen (1989) Transediting - A new term for coping with the grey area between editing and translating. In: Graham Caie, Kirsten Haastrup, Arnt Lykke Jakobsen et al. (eds) Proceedings from the Fourth Nordic Conference for English Studies. Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen, 371–382.

[45] Tarasheva, Elena (2014) The Image of a Country Created by International Media: The Case of Bulgaria. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

[46] Valdeón Roberto A. (2015b) The construction of national images through news translation: Self-framing in El País English Edition In: Van Doorslaer, Luc, Flynn, Peter and Joep Leerssen (eds.) Interconnecting Translation Studies and Imagology. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 219–237. | DOI 10.1075/btl.119.13val

[47] Valdeón, Roberto A. (2015a) Fifteen years of journalistic translation research and more Perspectives 23 (4), 634–662. | DOI 10.1080/0907676x.2015.1057187

[48] Valdeón, Roberto A. (2018) On the use of the term 'translation' in Journalism Studies. Journalism 19 (2), 252–269.

[49] Valdeón, Roberto A. (2022) Gatekeeping, ideological affinity and journalistic translation Journalism 23 (1), 117–133. | DOI 10.1177/1464884920917296

[50] van Dijk, Teun A. (1977a) Semantic macro-structures and knowledge frames in discourse comprehension. In: Marcel Adam Just and Patricia A. Carpenter (eds.) Cognitive Processes in Comprehension. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 3–32.

[51] van Dijk, Teun A. (1977b) Context and cognition: Knowledge frames and speech act comprehension. Journal of Pragmatics 1, 211–232.

[52] Van Doorslaer, Luc (2012) Translating, narrating and constructing images in journalism with a test case on representation in Flemish TV news Meta 57 (4), 1046–1059. | DOI 10.7202/1021232ar

[53] Verhulst, An, Depraetere, Ilse and Liesbet Heyvaert (2013) Source and strength of modality: An empirical study of root should, ought to and be supposed to in Present-day British English Journal of Pragmatics 55, 210–225. | DOI 10.1016/j.pragma.2013.05.010

[54] Vliegenthart, Rens (2012) Framing in mass communication research – An overview and assessment Sociology Compass 6 (12), 937–948. | DOI 10.1111/soc4.12003

[55] Welbers, Kasper; van Atteveldt, Wouter; Kleinnijenhuis, Jan and Nel Ruigrok (2018) A gatekeeper among gatekeepers. Journalism Studies 19 (3), 315–333.

[56] Wen, Jun, Aston, Joshua, Liu, Xinyi and Tianyu Ying (2020) Effects of misleading media coverage on public health crisis: a case of the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in China Anatolia 31 (2), 331–336. | DOI 10.1080/13032917.2020.1730621

[57] Wodak, Ruth and Michael Meyer (eds.) (2001) Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Sage.