Rovni před Bohem: evangelikální barvoslepost a neoliberální governmentalita

Title: Rovni před Bohem: evangelikální barvoslepost a neoliberální governmentalita
Variant title:
  • Equal before God: evangelical colorblindness and neoliberal governmentality
Author: Hodes, Aleš
Source document: Sacra. 2023, vol. 21, iss. 1, pp. 8-23
  • ISSN
    1214-5351 (print)
    2336-4483 (online)
Type: Article
License: Not specified license

Notice: These citations are automatically created and might not follow citation rules properly.

The essay is concerned with the examination of white evangelical discourse surrounding the institutional application of findings emerging from the comprehensive academic project of Critical Race Theory. The outrage and resentment that was unleashed, especially toward a thesis about systemic racism seeping through different layers of society and its administrative settings resulting in a socioeconomic disadvantage of ethnic minorities, is conceived from a Foucauldian perspective of religiously legitimated and disciplined, neoliberal governmentality. This presented argument supported by public statements of the Southern Baptist Convention and other evangelical activists, proposes evangelical individualistic theology and morality, in addition to disciplinary techniques of "responsibilization" as the underlining habitual reasons behind anti-structuralist attitudes of evangelical Christians toward racism.
[1] Bible: Písmo svaté Starého a Nového zákona. Český ekumenický překlad (2008/1985). Praha: Česká biblická společnost.

[2] Dobson, J. (2021/8/1). Protecting Our Children From Critical Race Theory. Nalezeno [20.5.2022] na

[3] Graham, F. (2018a/8/18). Vatican Sec. of State, Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, said in 2012. [Twitter]. Nalezeno [20.5.2022] na

[4] Graham, F. (2018b/8/20). @ChicagosMayor @RahmEmanuel is 100% right about this. [Twitter]. Nalezeno [22.5.2022] na

[5] Green, L. (2021/7/30). Critical Race Theory Debate Divides Christians: 'All of Us Have Intrinsic Value'. Nalezeno [18.5.2022] na

[6] Southern Baptist Convention (2019/6/1). On Critical Race Theory and Intersectionality. Nalezeno [17.5.2022] na

[7] Trump, D. J. (2020/9/22). Executive Order on Combating Race and Sex Stereotyping. Nalezeno [16.5.2022] na

[8] Ansell, A. (2008). Critical Race Theory. In R. Schaefer (Ed.). Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society (pp. 344–346). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.

[9] Asad, T. (1993). Genealogies of Religion: Discipline and Reasons of Power in Christianity and Islam. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

[10] Berger, P. (1999). The Desecularization of the World: A Global Overview. In P. Berger (Ed.). The Desecularization of the World: Resurgent Religion and World Politics (pp. 1–18). Washington D.C.: Ethics and Public Policy Center.

[11] Bhandaru, D. (2013). Is White Normativity Racist? Michel Foucault and Post-Civil Rights Racism. Polity, 45(2), pp. 223–244.

[12] Bonilla-Silva, E. (2006). Racism without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United States. Landham: Rowman and Littlefield.

[13] Bourdieu, P. (1990). The Logic of Practice. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

[14] Bourdieu, P. (1998). Teorie jednání. Praha: Karolinum.

[15] Bourdieu, P. (2001). Contre-feux 2: Pour un Mouvement Social Européen. Paris: Raisons d'Agir.

[16] Bruce, S. (1998). Conservative Protestant Politics. New York: Oxford University Press.

[17] Butler, A. (2021). White Evangelical Racism: The Politics of Morality in America. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.

[18] Calhoun, C. (2013). For The History of The Present: Bourdieu as Historical Sociologist. In P. Gorski (Ed.). Bourdieu and Historical Analysis (pp. 36–66). Durham: Duke University Press.

[19] Casanova, J. (1994). Public Religion in the Modern World. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

[20] Crenshaw, K. W. (1988). Race, Reform, and Retrenchment: Transformation and Legitimation in Antidiscrimination Law. Harvard Law Review, 101(7), pp. 1331–1387.

[21] Crenshaw, K. W. (1989). Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory, and Antiracist Politics. University of Chicago Legal Forum, 1989(1), pp. 139–167.

[22] Crenshaw, K. W. (1991). Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color. Stanford Law Review, 43(6), pp. 1241–1299.

[23] Dean, M. (1999). Governmentality: Power and Rule in Modern Society. London: Sage.

[24] Doane, A. (1997). Dominant Group identity in the United States: The Role of Hidden Ethnicity in Intergroup Relations. Sociological Quarterly, 38(3), pp. 375–397.

[25] Elisha, O. (2015). Personhood: Sin, Sociality, and the Unbuffered Self in US Evangelicalism. In S. Coleman & R. I. J. Hackett (Eds.). The Antropology of Global Pentecostalism and Evangelicalism (pp. 41–56). New York: New York University Press.

[26] Emerson, M. O. & Smith, Ch. (2000). Divided by Faith: Evangelical Religion and the Problem of Race in America. New York: Oxford University Press.

[27] Erzen, T. (2006). Straight to Jesus: Sexual and Christian Conversion in the Ex-Gay Movement. Berkeley: University of California Press.

[28] Foxley, R. (2013). The Levellers: Radical Political Thought in the English Revolution. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

[29] Foucault, M. (1979). Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Vintage.

[30] Foucault, M. (1980). Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972–1977. New York: Pantheon Books.

[31] Foucault, M. (1991). Governmentality. In G. Burchell & C. Gordon & P. Miller (Eds.). The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmental Rationality (pp. 73–86). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

[32] Foucault, M. (1999). Dějiny sexuality: Vůle k vědění. Praha: Hermann.

[33] Foucault, M. (2008). The Birth of Biopolitics: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1978-1979. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

[34] Gerber, L. (2011). Seeking the Straight and Narrow: Weight Loss and Sexual Reorientation in Evangelical America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

[35] Ghatak, S. & Abel, A. (2013). Power/Faith: Governmentality, Religion, and Post-Secular Societies. International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society, 26(3), pp. 217–235.

[36] Gjelten, T. (2020/6/6). Evangelical Christians Grapple With Racism As Sin. Nalezeno [22.5.2022] na

[37] Goldberg, D. T. (2009). The Threat of Race: Reflections on Racial Neoliberalism. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

[38] Gorski, P. (2017). Why Evangelicals Voted for Trump: A Critical Cultural Sociology. American Journal of Cultural Sociology, 5(3), pp. 166–183.

[39] Gorski, P. (2020). American Babylon: Christianity and Democracy Before and After Trump. London: Routledge.

[40] Hall, S. (1996). Introduction: Who Needs 'Identity'?. In S. Hall & P. du Gay (Eds.). Questions of Cultural Identity (pp. 1–17). London: Sage Publications.

[41] Hall, S. (2016). Domination and Hegemony. In L. Grossberg & J. D. Slack (Eds.). Cultural Studies 1983: A Theoretical History (pp. 155–179). Durham: Duke University Press.

[42] Hardt, M. & Negri, A. (2000). Empire. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

[43] Hofstadter, R. (1996). The Paranoid Style in American Politics and Other Essays. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

[44] Charles, J. B. (2019/8/20). The New York Times 1619 Project Is Reshaping the Conversation on Slavery. Conservatives Hate It. Nalezeno [16.5.2022] na es/2019/8/19/20812238/1619-project-slavery-conservatives.

[45] Keane, W. (2007). Christian Moderns: Freedom and Fetish in the Mission Encounter. Berkeley: University of California Press.

[46] Kruse, K. M. (2015). One Nation under God: How Corporate America Invented Christian America, New York: Basic Books.

[47] Lemke, T. (2002). Foucault, Governmentality, and Critique. Rethinking Marxism, 14(3), pp. 49–64.

[48] Lincoln, B. (1989). Discourse and the Construction of Society: Comparative Studies of Myth, Ritual, and Classification. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[49] Lipka, M. (2014/12/8). Many U.S. Congregations Are Still Racially Segregated, but Things Are Changing. Nalezeno [22.5.2022] na

[50] Morrison, L. R. (1980). The Religious Defense of American Slavery before 1830. The Journal of Religious Thought, 37(2), pp. 16–29.

[51] Norman, J. (2018/4/6) The Religious Regions of the U.S. Nalezeno [21.5.2022] na

[52] Parsons, T. (1971). The System of Modern Societies. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.

[53] Pew Research Center (2014). Political Ideology Among Adults in the South. Nalezeno [18.5.2022] na

[54] Rawls, J. (1971). A Theory of Justice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

[55] Rose, N. (1990). Governing the Soul: The Shaping of the Private Self. London: Routledge.

[56] Schnabel, L. (2014). When Fringe Goes Mainstream Again: A Comparative Textual Analysis of the Tea Party Movements's Contract from America and the Republican Party Platform. Politics, Religion & Ideology, 15(4), pp. 604–624.

[57] Schonhardt-Bailey, Ch., Yager, E. & Lahlou, S. (2012). Yes, Ronald Reagan's Rhetoric Was Unique—But Statistically, How Unique?. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 42(3), pp. 482–513.

[58] Stoeckl, K. (2017). Political Theologies and Modernity. In K. Stoeckl & I. Gabriel & A. Papanikolaou (Eds.). Political Theologies in Orthodox Christianity: Common Challenges - Divergent Positions (pp. 15–24). London: Bloomsbury Publishing.

[59] Storrs, L. (2013). The Second Red Scare and the Unmaking of the New Deal Left, Princeton – Oxford: Princeton University Press.

[60] Šlesingerová, E., Hamar, E. & Szaló, C. (2007). Konceptualizace pojmů rasa a rasismu: Sociologický pohled. Sociální studia, 4, pp. 7–21.

[61] Thompson, E. P. (2007). Time, Work-Discipline, and Industrial Capitalism. In M. Lock & J. Farquhar (Eds.). Beyond the Body Proper: Reading the Anthropology of Material Life (pp. 495–511). Durham: Duke University Press.

[62] Tranby E. & Hartmann D. (2008). Critical Whiteness Theories and the Evangelical "Race Problem": Extending Emerson and Smith's "Divided by Faith". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 47(3), pp. 341–359.

[63] Turner, B. S. (2008). The Body & Society. London: Sage Publications.

[64] Wagner, P. (2016). Progress: A Reconstruction. Cambridge: Polity.

[65] Weber, M. (2003/1904). The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, New York: Dover Publications.

[66] Whitehead, A. & Perry, S. (2020). Taking America Back For God: Christian Nationalism in the United States, New York: Oxford University Press.

[67] Williamson, V., Skocpol, T. & Coggin, J. (2011). The Tea Party and the Remaking of Republican Conservatism. Perspective on Politics, 9(1), pp. 25–43.