Islámský stát a popravy stětím: diskurzivní analýza vybraných částí časopisu Dabiq

Title: Islámský stát a popravy stětím: diskurzivní analýza vybraných částí časopisu Dabiq
Variant title:
  • The Islamic State's beheadings: discourse analysis of selected parts of the magazine Dabiq
Source document: Sacra. 2016, vol. 14, iss. 1, pp. 7-27
  • ISSN
    1214-5351 (print)
    2336-4483 (online)
Type: Article
License: Not specified license

Notice: These citations are automatically created and might not follow citation rules properly.

The Islamic State has struck the world with its brutal and shameless displays of violence, extensively disseminated through various media. This study, focusing on the Islamic State's propaganda of beheading videos, utilises a discourse analysis of the magazine Dabiq to identify additional themes and strategies not apparent from the beheading videos alone. It provides interpretations and explanations of how and why the themes of airstrikes, family, and Western arrogance are used to justify the Islamic State's behavior and accuse its enemies of being the real villain. The study also reflects on theoretical assumptions of the "irrationality" of religious intergroup violence, propaganda, limitations of diverse media formats, the question of authenticity of Islamic State's religiosity, and its position in modern, globalized world, in order to provide a constructive perspective on few "paradoxes" of violent fundamentalism.
Text vznikl jako součást projektu specifického výzkumu MUNI/A/0931/2015 - "Teoretické a metodologické výzvy religionistiky" (TEMEVYR), řešeného Ústavem religionistiky na Filozofické fakultě Masarykovy univerzity v roce 2016.
[1] Dabiq 3 (10. Září 2014), al-Hayat Media Center. Nalezeno [23.5.2015] na

[2] Dabiq 4 (11. Říjen 2014), al-Hayat Media Center. Nalezeno [23.5.2015] na

[3] Dabiq 7 (12. Únor 2015), al-Hayat Media Center. Nalezeno [23.5.2015] na

[4] Dabiq 14 (13. Duben 2016), al-Hayat Media Center. Nalezeno [28.7.2016] na

[5] [jimwagner]. (20. Srpen 2014). ISIS beheading American James Wright Foley. [Video] Nalezeno [16. 6. 2015] na

[6] Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States. (1933).

[7] Anderson, B. (2008). Představy společenství: Úvahy o původu a šíření nacionalismu. Praha: Karolinum.

[8] Anderson, C. A., Carnagey, N. L., & Eubanks, J. (2003). Exposure to Violent Media: The Effects of Songs With Violent Lyrics on Aggressive Thoughts and Feelings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(5), 960–971. | DOI 10.1037/0022-3514.84.5.960

[9] Atran, S. (2010). A Question of Honor: Why the Taliban Fight and What to Do about It. Asian Journal of Social Science, 38, 341–361. | DOI 10.1163/156853110X499918

[10] Atran, S. (2011). Talking to the Enemy: Faith, Brotherhood and the (Un)Making of Terrorists. London: Penguin.

[11] Atran, S. (15. Prosinec 2015). ISIS Is a Revolution. Nalezeno [2.1.2016] na

[12] Atran, S. & Axelrod, R. (2008). Reframing Sacred Values. Negotiation Journal, 24(3), 221–246. | DOI 10.1111/j.1571-9979.2008.00182.x

[13] Atran, S. & Ginges, J. (2012). Religious and Sacred Imperatives in Human Conflict. Science, 336(6083), 855–857. | DOI 10.1126/science.1216902

[14] Atran, S. & Sheikh, H. (2015). Dangerous Terrorists as Devoted Actors. In V. Zeigler-Hill, L. L. Welling, & T. Shackelford (Eds.), Evolutionary Perspectives on Social Psychology (pp. 401–416). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

[15] Atran, S., Wilson, L., Davis, R., & Sheikh, H. (2014). The Devoted Actor, Sacred Values, and Willingness to Fight: Preliminary Studies With ISIL Volunteers and Kurdish Frontline Fighters. In H. Cabayan & S. Canna (Eds.), Multimethod assessment of ISIL (pp. 165–175).

[16] Berkowitz, L. (1984). Some Effects of Thoughts on Anti-Social and Pro-Social Influences of Media Effects: A Cognitive-Neoassociation Analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 95(3), 410–425. | DOI 10.1037/0033-2909.95.3.410

[17] Berkowitz, L. (1993). Aggression: Its Causes, Consequences, and Control. New York: McGraw-Hill.

[18] Bushman, B. J. & Geen, R. G. (1990). Role of Cognitive-Emotional Mediators and Individual Differences in the Effects of Media Violence on Aggression. Journal of personality and Social Psychology, 58(1), 156–163. | DOI 10.1037/0022-3514.58.1.156

[19] Castano, E. & Leidner, B. (2012). Morality Shifting in the Context of Intergroup Violence. European Journal of Social Psychology, 42(1), 82–91. | DOI 10.1002/ejsp.846

[20] Celso, A. N. (2014). Cycles of Jihadist Movements and the Role of Irrationality. Orbis, 58(2), 229–247. | DOI 10.1016/j.orbis.2014.02.003

[21] Eisenstadt, S. N. (1999). Fundamentalism, Sectarianism, and Revolution: The Jacobin Dimension of Modernity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[22] Eisenstadt, S. N. (2000). Multiple Modernities. Daedalus, 129(1), 1–29.

[23] Eisenstein, E. L. (1979). The Printing Press as an Agent of Change: Communications and Cultural Transformations in Early-Modern Europe. Cambridge – London – New York – Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.

[24] El Damanhoury, K. (26. Červenec 2016). The Daesh State: The Myth Turns into a Reality. Nalezeno [26.8.2016] na

[25] Ellul, J. (1973). Propaganda: The Formation of Men's Attitudes. New York: Vintage Books.

[26] Firestone, R. (2012). "Jihadism" as a New Religious Movement. In O. Hammer & M. Rothstein (Eds.), The Cambridge Companion to New Religious Movements (pp. 263–285). New York: Cambridge University Press.

[27] Foucault, M. (1994). Řád diskurzu. In M. Foucault, Diskurs, autor, genealogie (pp. 7–39). Praha: Svoboda.

[28] Ginges, J. & Atran, S. (2009). What Motivates Participation in Violent Political Action: Selective Incentives or Parochial Altruism? In S. Atran, A. Navarro, K. Ochsner, A. Tobeña, & O. Vilarroya (Eds.), Values, Empathy, and Fairness across Social Barriers (pp. 115–123). Boston: Blackwell Publishing.

[29] Ginges, J., Atran, S., Medin, D., & Shikaki, K. (2007). Sacred Bounds on Rational Resolution of Violent Political Conflict. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(18), 7357–7360.

[30] Ginges, J., Atran, S., Sachdeva, S., & Medin, D. (2011). Psychology out of the Laboratory: The Challenge of Violent Extremism. American Psychologist, 66(6), 507–519. | DOI 10.1037/a0024715

[31] Hampejs, T. & Chalupa, A. (2014). Kognitivní věda o náboženství: Východiska, cíle a krátká historie. Pantheon, 9(1), 10–43.

[32] Hanzelka, J. & Mareš, M. (2015). Mediální prezentace ISIS: Obsahová analýza časopisu Dabiq. Vojenské rozhledy, 24(2), 51–63.

[33] Henrich, J. (2009). The Evolution of Costly Displays, Cooperation, and Religion: Credibility Enhancing Displays and Their Implications for Cultural Evolution. Evolution and Human Behavior, 30(4), 244–246. | DOI 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2009.03.005

[34] Henrich, J. (2016). The Secret of Our Success: How Culture Is Driving Human Evolution, Domesticating Our Species, and Making Us Smarter. Princeton – Oxford: Princeton University Press.

[35] Hermann, R. (2016). Konečná stanice Islámský stát? Selhání státu a náboženská válka v arabském světě. Praha: Academia.

[36] Huesmann, R. L., Eron, L. D., Klein, R., Brice, P., & Fischer, P. (1983). Mitigating the Imitation of Aggressive Behaviors by Changing Children's Attitudes About Media Violence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44(5), 899–910. | DOI 10.1037/0022-3514.44.5.899

[37] Huey, L. (Květen 2015). This is Not Your Mother's Terrorism: Social Media, Online Radicalization and the Practice of Political Jamming. Journal of Terrorism Research, 6(2), 1–16.

[38] Hutcheon, L. (2010). Co se děje při adaptaci? Iluminace, 22(1), 23–59.

[39] Jassin, K., Sheikh, H., Obeid, N., Argo, N., & Ginges, J. (2013). Negotiating Cultural Conflicts over Sacred Values. In K. Sycara, M. Gelfand, & A. Abbe (Eds.), Models for Intercultural Collaboration and Negotiation (pp. 133–143). Dordrecht: Springer Science & Business Media.

[40] Jørgensen, M. & Phillips, L. J. (2002). Discourse Analysis as Theory and Method. London – Thousand Oaks – New Delhi: SAGE Publications.

[41] Kilcullen, D. (2015). Blood Year: Terror and the Islamic State. Quarterly Essay, (58), 1–128.

[42] Kovács, A. (2001). Virtuální umma: Islám a islámští radikálové v kyberprostoru. Religio, 9(2), 181–188.

[43] Kovács, A. (2014). Kalifát v teórii a praxi: od "správne vedených" kalifov po Dá›iš. Axis Mundi, (2), 10–26.

[44] Kropáček, L. (1996). Islámský fundamentalismus. Praha: Vyšehrad.

[45] Landau-Tasseron, E. (2016). A Self-Profile of the Islamic State: The Creedal Document. MEMRI Inquiry & Analysis (1253), 1–12.

[46] Leitch, T. (2010). Výjimečná věrnost. Iluminace, 22(1), 61–82.

[47] Lentini, P. & Bakashmar, M. (2007). Jihadist Beheadings: A Convergence of Technology, Theology, and Teleology? Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 30(4), 303–325.

[48] Lombardi, M. (2015). IS 2.0 and Beyond: The Caliphate's Communication Project. In M. Maggioni & P. Magro, Twitter and Jihad: The Communication Strategy of ISIS (pp. 83–124). Milano: Edizioni Epoké.

[49] McCants, W. & Hassan, H. (18. Duben 2016). Experts weigh in (part 7): Is ISIS good at governing? Nalezeno [4. 11. 2016] na

[50] Mendel, M. (2010). Džihád: Islámské koncepce šíření víry. Brno: Atlantis.

[51] Mendel, M. (2015). Arabské jaro: Historické a kulturní pozadí událostí na Blízkém východě. Praha: Academia.

[52] Postman, N. (1987). Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business. London: Methuen.

[53] Scharrer, E. (2005). Hypermasculinity, Aggression, and Television Violence: An Experiment. Media Psychology, 7(4), 353–376.

[54] Speckhard, A. & Yayla, A. S. (Prosinec 2015). Eyewitness Accounts from Recent Defectors from Islamic State: Why They Joined, What They Saw, Why They Quit. Perspectives on Terrorism, 9(6), 95–118.

[55] Swann, W. Jetten, J., Gómez, Á., Whitehouse, H., & Bastian, B. (2012). When Group Membership Gets Personal: A Theory of Identity Fusion. Psychological Review, 119(3), 441–456. | DOI 10.1037/a0028589

[56] Tetlock, P. E. (Červenec 2003). Thinking the Unthinkable: Sacred Values and Taboo Cognitions. TRENDS in Cognitive Sciences, 7(7), 320–324. | DOI 10.1016/S1364-6613(03)00135-9

[57] Thompson, J. B. (2004). Média a modernita: Sociální teorie médií. Praha: Karolinum.

[58] Tinnes, J. (Únor 2016). Counting Lives Lost – Monitoring Camera-Recorded Extrajudicial Executions by the "Islamic State". Perspectives on Terrorism, 10(1), 78–82.

[59] Veilleux-Lepage, Y. (Leden 2016). Paradigmatic Shifts in Jihadism in Cyberspace: The Emerging Role of Unaffiliated Sympathizers in Islamic State's Media Strategy. Journal of Terrorism Research, 7(1), 36–51. | DOI 10.15664/jtr.1183

[60] Webman, E. (26. Leden 2016). The Islamic State (IS) and al-Qa'ida: Ideology and Practice. Tel Aviv Notes, 10(2), stránky 1–5. Nalezeno [14.4.2016] na

[61] Whitehouse, H. & Lanman, J. (Prosinec 2014). The Ties That Bind Us: Ritual, Fusion, and Identification. Current Anthropology, 55(6), 1–23.

[62] Willard, A. K., Henrich, J. & Norenzayan, A. (2016). Memory and Belief in the Transmission of Counterintuitive Content. Human Nature, 27(3), 221–243. | DOI 10.1007/s12110-016-9259-6

[63] Zábrodská, K. & Petrjánošová, M. (2013). Metody diskurzivní analýzy. In I. Čermák, T. Řiháček, & R. Hytych a kolektiv, Kvalitativní analýza textů: čtyři přístupy (pp. 105–138). Brno: Masarykova univerzita.

[64] Zech, S. T. & Kelly, Z. M. (Květen 2015). Off With Their Heads: The Islamic State and Civilian Beheadings. Journal of Terrorism Research, 6(2), 83–93.