O indoevropském slovu "ječmen"

Zdrojový dokument: Linguistica Brunensia. 2013, roč. 61, č. 1-2, s. [15]-33
  • ISSN
    1803-7410 (print)
    2336-4440 (online)
Type: Článek
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The article analyzes 15 terms designating "barley" at least in one Indo-European branch. Discussing the comparative material, the determination of the most probable semantic motivation is a final purpose. In the context of all "barley"-terms and a wider context of cereal terminology it is possible to formulate some new etymological solutions which are compatible with more general motives inspiring the cereal nomenclature. From 15 discussed terms there are two, *i̯éu̯H1o- and *mr̥k-/?*mr̥ ̄k-, represented also in the Anatolian branch. It means, it is possible to project them in the deepest protolanguage level. With regard to relatively high transparency of semantic motivations it seems, all analyzed terms were formed only on the Indo-European ground. Sharp or spiky awns of barley inspired 3 terms (*bhors-/*bhr̥s-; *kolsko-/*kl̥sko-; *H2ek̂-os-), another term could be motivated by similarity of awns and bristles (*ĝhresdhi/*ĝhr̥sdh-). From the verb *seH1(i̯)- "to sow" one or two terms were formed (*siH1tii̯o-, *sH1(e)si̯o-). Interesting is that maybe even 4 terms are connected with irrigation (*(H)mei̯ĝ(h)-, *Hn̥k(u̯)imen-, *ten(ĝ)-, *mr̥ k-/?*mr̥ ̄k-). Other motives appear only individually, but usually analogous semantic motivations are attested in designations of other kinds of cereals: ripening (*i̯éu̯H1o-), grinding (*ghr̥ ri̯o-/*ghr̥ghru-), roasting (*H2ed-(-os-)), growing (*bheu̯Hu-), white or light color [of flour?] (*H2elbh-). Summing up: the terminology related to "barley" is remarkably rich and varied, especially in comparison with situation in the Semitic language family, where partically the only term appears, if loans are excluded, namely *śucār- & *śacīr-, derivatives of *śacr-(at-) "hair".
  • Tato studie byla uskutečněna díky podpoře Grantové agentury České republiky (GAČR), P406/12/0655.
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