A narrative review of eye-tracking research on self-regulated learning from multimedia learning materials in higher education

Název: A narrative review of eye-tracking research on self-regulated learning from multimedia learning materials in higher education
Zdrojový dokument: Studia paedagogica. 2022, roč. 27, č. 2, s. [77]-96
  • ISSN
    1803-7437 (print)
    2336-4521 (online)
Type: Článek
Licence: Neurčená licence

Upozornění: Tyto citace jsou generovány automaticky. Nemusí být zcela správně podle citačních pravidel.

This study provides a narrative review of current eye-tracking research on self-regulated learning from multimedia learning materials in higher education. The main aim of the review is to explore how eye tracking is used in self-regulated learning research when learning from multimedia materials in university students. Other specific aims were established: 1) to identify what self-regulated learning processes are explored with eye tracking while learning from multimedia materials, 2) to determine what methods are used to explore self-regulated learning processes with eye tracking, 3) to find what structures and stimuli are used in eye-tracking experiments when studying self-regulated learning processes, and 4) to investigate what eye-tracking metrics are used to study self-regulated learning processes in learning from multimedia materials. To accomplish these aims, we analyzed 11 empirical studies published between 2012 and 2021. The results show that 1) current studies focus on self-regulated learning processes, such as judgments of learning, metacognitive monitoring, meta-comprehension, and learning strategies, 2) studies are quantitative and use experimental designs, specific stimuli, and distinct structures, and 4) studies are mainly focused on the fixations, saccades, and transitions between selected areas of interest in the data analyses. The results of this narrative review can indicate new directions for future research in this field.
This study is an outcome of the project "Multimodal learning analytics to study self-regulated learning processes within learning management systems" (21-08218S) funded by the Czech Science Foundation.
[1] Alemdag, E., & Cagiltay, K. (2018). A systematic review of eye tracking research on multimedia learning. Computers & Education, 125, 413–428. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2018.06.023 | DOI 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.06.023

[2] Antonietti, A., Colombo, B., & Di Nuzzo, Ch. (2015). Metacognition in self-regulated multimedia learning: Integrating behavioural, psychophysiological and introspective measures. Learning, Media and Technology, 40(2), 187–209. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439884.2014.933112 | DOI 10.1080/17439884.2014.933112

[3] Boekaerts, M., Pintrich, P. R., & Zeidner, M. (2000). Handbook of self-regulation. Academic Press.

[4] Broadbent, J., & Poon, W. L. (2015). Self-regulated learning strategies & academic achievement in online higher education learning environments: A systematic review. Internet and Higher Education, 27, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2015.04.007 | DOI 10.1016/j.iheduc.2015.04.007

[5] Carneiro, R., Lefrere, P., Steffens, K., & Underwood, J. (2011). Self-regulated learning in technology enhanced learning environments. A European perspective. Sense Publishers.

[6] Catrysse, L., Gijbels, D., Donche, V., De Maeyer, S., Lesterhuis, M., & Van den Bossche, P. (2018). How are learning strategies reflected in the eyes? Combining results from self-reports and eye-tracking. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 88(1), 118–137. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjep.12181 | DOI 10.1111/bjep.12181

[7] Ciuffreda, K., & Tannen, B. (1995). Eye movement basics for the clinician. Mosby.

[8] Duchowski, A. (2007). Eye tracking methodology: Theory and practice (2nd Ed.). Springer.

[9] Eitel, A. (2016). How repeated studying and testing affects multimedia learning: Evidence for adaptation to task demands. Learning and Instruction, 41, 70–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2015.10.003 | DOI 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2015.10.003

[10] Ferrari, R. (2015). Writing narrative style literature reviews. Medical Writing, 24(4), 230–235. https://doi.org/10.1179/2047480615Z.000000000329 | DOI 10.1179/2047480615z.000000000329

[11] Fiorella, L., & Pilegard, C. (2021). Learner-generated explanations: Effects on restudying and learning from a multimedia lesson. Educational Psychology, 41(1), 45–62. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2020.1755829 | DOI 10.1080/01443410.2020.1755829

[12] Gasparyan, A. Y., Ayvazyan, L., Blackmore, H., & Kitas, G. D. (2011). Writing a narrative biomedical review: Considerations for authors, peer reviewers, and editors. Rheumatology International, 31(11), 1409–1417. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00296-011-1999-3 | DOI 10.1007/s00296-011-1999-3

[13] Gregory, A. T., & Denniss, A. R. (2018). An introduction to writing narrative and systematic reviews—Tasks, tips and traps for aspiring authors. Heart, Lung and Circulation, 27(7), 893–898. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hlc.2018.03.027 | DOI 10.1016/j.hlc.2018.03.027

[14] Hegarty, M. (2004). Dynamic visualizations and learning: getting to the difficult questions. Learning and Instruction, 14(3), 343–351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2004.06.007 | DOI 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2004.06.007

[15] Holmqvist, K., Nyström, M., Andersson, R., Dewhurst, R., Jarodzka, H., & van de Weijer, J. (2011). Eye tracking a comprehensive guide to methods and measures. Oxford University Press.

[16] Chuang, H. H., & Liu, H. C. (2012). Effects of different multimedia presentations on viewers' information-processing activities measured by eye-tracking technology. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 21(2), 276–286. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-011-9316-1. | DOI 10.1007/s10956-011-9316-1

[17] Lai, M. L., Tsai, M. J., Yang, F. A., Hsu, C. Y., Liu, T. C., Lee, S. W. Y, Lee, M. H., Chiou, G. L., Liang, J. C., & Tsai, C. C. (2013). A review of using eye-tracking technology in exploring learning from 2000 to 2012. Educational Research Review, 10, 90–115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2013.10.001.

[18] Liu, H. C., & Chuang, H. H. (2011). An examination of cognitive processing of multimedia information based on viewers' eye movements. Interactive Learning Environments, 19(5), 503–517. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820903520123. | DOI 10.1080/10494820903520123

[19] Mayer, R. E. (2005). Cognitive theory of multimedia learning. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning (pp. 31–48). Cambridge University Press. | DOI 10.1017/cbo9780511816819.004

[20] Mayer, R. E., Hegarty, M., Mayer, S., & Campbell, J. (2005). When static media promote active learning: Annotated illustrations versus narrated animations in multimedia instruction. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 11(4), 256–265. https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-898X.11.4.256 | DOI 10.1037/1076-898x.11.4.256

[21] Mayer, R. E. (2014). The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning. Cambridge University Press.

[22] Mayer, R. E. (2017). Using multimedia for e-learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 33(5), 403–423. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12197

[23] Moreno, R. (2004). Decreasing cognitive load for novice students: Effects of explanatory versus corrective feedback in discovery-based multimedia. Instructional Science, 32, 99–113. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:TRUC.0000021811.66966.1d | DOI 10.1023/b:truc.0000021811.66966.1d

[24] Mudrick, N., Azevedo, R., & Taub, M. (2019). Integrating metacognitive judgments and eye movements using sequential pattern mining to understand processes underlying multimedia learning. Computers in Human Behavior, 96, 223–234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.06.028 | DOI 10.1016/j.chb.2018.06.028

[25] Panadero, E. (2017). A review of self-regulated learning: Six models and four directions for research. Frontiers in Psychology, 8(422), 1–28. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00422

[26] Park, B., Korbach, A., & Brünken, R. (2020). Does thinking-aloud affect learning, visual information processing and cognitive load when learning with seductive details as expected from self-regulation perspective? Computers in Human Behavior, 111, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2020.106411 | DOI 10.1016/j.chb.2020.106411

[27] Ploetzner, R., & Lowe, R. K. (2004). Dynamic visualizations and learning. Learning and Instruction, 14(3), 235–240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2004.06.001

[28] Ruf, T., & Ploetzner, R. (2014). One click away is too far! How the presentation of cognitive learning aids influences their use in multimedia learning environments. Computers in Human Behavior, 38, 229–239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.06.002 | DOI 10.1016/j.chb.2014.06.002

[29] Scheiter, K., Schubert, C., & Schüler, A. (2018). Self-regulated learning from illustrated text: Eye movement modelling to support use and regulation of cognitive processes during learning from multimedia. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 88(1), 80–94. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjep.12175 | DOI 10.1111/bjep.12175

[30] Sitzmann, T., & Ely, K. (2011). A meta-analysis of self-regulated learning in work-related training and educational attainment: What we know and where we need to go. Psychological Bulletin, 137(3), 421–442. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022777. | DOI 10.1037/a0022777

[31] Taub, M., & Azevedo, R. (2019). How does prior knowledge influence eye fixations and sequences of cognitive and metacognitive SRL processes during learning with an intelligent tutoring system? International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education , 29(1), 1–28. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40593-018-0165-4 | DOI 10.1007/s40593-018-0165-4

[32] Trevors, G., Feyzi-Behnagh, R., Azevedo, R., & Bouchet, F. (2016). Self-regulated learning processes vary as a function of epistemic beliefs and contexts: Mixed method evidence from eye tracking and concurrent and retrospective reports. Learning and Instruction, 42, 31–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2015.11.003 | DOI 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2015.11.003

[33] Tsai, P., Yang, T., She, H., & Chen, S. (2019). Leveraging college students' scientific evidence-based reasoning performance with eye-tracking-supported metacognition. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 28(6), 613–627. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-019-09791-x | DOI 10.1007/s10956-019-09791-x

[34] van Gog, T., & Jarodzka, H. (2013). Eye tracking as a tool to study and enhance cognitive and metacognitive processes in computer-based learning environments. In R. Azevedo & V. Aleven (Eds.), International handbook of metacognition and learning technologies (pp. 143–156). Springer. | DOI 10.1007/978-1-4419-5546-3_10

[35] Wong, J., Baars, M., Davis, D., Van Der Zee, T., Houben, G.-J., & Paas, F. (2019). Supporting self-regulated learning in online learning environments and MOOCs: A systematic review. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 35(4–5), 356–373. https://doi.org/10.1080/10447318.2018.1543084 | DOI 10.1080/10447318.2018.1543084

[36] Zeidner, M., & Stoeger, H. (2019). Self-regulated learning (SRL): A guide for the perplexed. High Ability Studies, 30(1–2), 9–51. https://doi.org/10.1080/13598139.2019.1589369 | DOI 10.1080/13598139.2019.1589369

[37] Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 13–40). Academic Press.

[38] Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. H. (2011). Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance. Routledge.