O indoevropském slovu "ječmen"

Název: O indoevropském slovu "ječmen"
Zdrojový dokument: Linguistica Brunensia. 2013, roč. 61, č. 1-2, s. [15]-33
  • ISSN
    1803-7410 (print)
    2336-4440 (online)
Type: Článek
Licence: Neurčená licence
Přístupová práva
přístupné po uplynutí embarga

Upozornění: Tyto citace jsou generovány automaticky. Nemusí být zcela správně podle citačních pravidel.

The article analyzes 15 terms designating "barley" at least in one Indo-European branch. Discussing the comparative material, the determination of the most probable semantic motivation is a final purpose. In the context of all "barley"-terms and a wider context of cereal terminology it is possible to formulate some new etymological solutions which are compatible with more general motives inspiring the cereal nomenclature. From 15 discussed terms there are two, *i̯éu̯H1o- and *mr̥k-/?*mr̥ ̄k-, represented also in the Anatolian branch. It means, it is possible to project them in the deepest protolanguage level. With regard to relatively high transparency of semantic motivations it seems, all analyzed terms were formed only on the Indo-European ground. Sharp or spiky awns of barley inspired 3 terms (*bhors-/*bhr̥s-; *kolsko-/*kl̥sko-; *H2ek̂-os-), another term could be motivated by similarity of awns and bristles (*ĝhresdhi/*ĝhr̥sdh-). From the verb *seH1(i̯)- "to sow" one or two terms were formed (*siH1tii̯o-, *sH1(e)si̯o-). Interesting is that maybe even 4 terms are connected with irrigation (*(H)mei̯ĝ(h)-, *Hn̥k(u̯)imen-, *ten(ĝ)-, *mr̥ k-/?*mr̥ ̄k-). Other motives appear only individually, but usually analogous semantic motivations are attested in designations of other kinds of cereals: ripening (*i̯éu̯H1o-), grinding (*ghr̥ ri̯o-/*ghr̥ghru-), roasting (*H2ed-(-os-)), growing (*bheu̯Hu-), white or light color [of flour?] (*H2elbh-). Summing up: the terminology related to "barley" is remarkably rich and varied, especially in comparison with situation in the Semitic language family, where partically the only term appears, if loans are excluded, namely *śucār- & *śacīr-, derivatives of *śacr-(at-) "hair".
Tato studie byla uskutečněna díky podpoře Grantové agentury České republiky (GAČR), P406/12/0655.
[1] ABAEV, VASILIJ I. 1958–95. Istoriko-ėtimologičeskij slovaŕ osetinskogo jazyka, I-V. Moskva – Leningrad: Izdatel'stvo Akademii nauk SSSR.

[2] ADAMS, DOUGLAS Q. 1999. A Dictionary of Tocharian A. Amsterdam-Atlanta: Rodopi.

[3] BAILLEY, HAROLD W. 1979. Dictionary of Khotan Saka. London-New York-Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.

[4] BAXTER, WILLIAM H. 1992. A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology. Berlin-New York: Mouton de Gtuyter.

[5] BEEKES, ROBERT. 2010. Etymological Dictionary of Greek, I-II. Leiden-Boston: Brill.

[6] BODMAN, NICHOLAS C. 1985. Evidence for l and r medials in Old Chinese and Associated Problems. In: Linguistics of the Sino-Tibetan Area: The State of the Art. Papers presented to Paul K.Benedict for his 71st birthday, eds. G. Thurgood, J.S. Matisoff, D. Bradley. Canberra: Department of Linguistics of The Australian National University (Pacific Linguistics, Ser. C - No 87), 146–167.

[7] DE BERNARDO STEMPEL, Patrizia. 1987. Die Vertretung der indogermanischen liquiden und nasalen Sonanten im Keltischen. Innsbruck: IBS 54.

[8] BLAŽEK, VÁCLAV. 1999. Alimenta Tocharica (1–3). Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 8, 79–84.

[9] BLENCH, ROGER. 2009. If agriculture cannot be reconstructed for Proto-Sino-Tibetan what are the consequences? Presented at the 42nd Conference on Sino-Tibetan Language and Linguistics and subsequently revised (Chiang Mai, November 2–4, 2009). http://www.rogerblench.info/Language%20data/Sino-Tibetan/Blench%20ICSTLL42%20Chiang%20Mai%20paper.pdf

[10] CHARPENTIER, JARL. 1907. Zur arischen Wortkunde. Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung 40, 425–477.

[11] CHEUNG, JOHNNY. 2007. Etymological Dictionary of the Iranian Verb. Leiden-Boston: Brill.

[12] CHING CHAO-JUNG. 2008. On the names of cereals in Tocharian B. Paper presented at the International Conference for the Centenary of Tocharian Studies (Moscow, August 2008).

[13] CHLI Corpus of Hieroglyphic Luwian Inscriptions, Vol. I: Inscriptions of the Iron Age, Part 3: Plates, by JOHN D. HAWKINS. Berlin-New York: Walter de Gruyter 2000.

[14] CVST A Comparative Vocabulary of Five Sino-Tibetan Languages, I-VI, by ILYA PEIROS & SERGEI STAROSTIN. Melbourne: University of Melbourne - Department of Linguistics and Applied Linguistics 1996.

[15] DELAMARRE, XAVIER. 2001. Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise. Une approche linguistique du vieux-celtique continental. Paris: Errance.

[16] DELAMARRE, XAVIER. 2007. Nomina Celtica Antiqua Selecta Inscriptionum (Noms de personnes celtiques dans l'épigraphie classique). Paris: Errance.

[17] EDAL STAROSTIN, SERGEI, DYBO, ANNA & MUDRAK, OLEG et al. 2003. Etymological Dictionary of the Altaic Languages, I-III. Leiden - Boston: Brill.

[18] ĖDEĽMAN, DŽOJ I. 1971. Jazgulamsko-russkij slovaŕ. Moskva: Nauka.

[19] EIEC Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, eds. J.P. MALLORY & D.Q. ADAMS. London - Chicago: Fitzroy Dearbon Publishers 1997.

[20] ENDZELIN, J. & HAUSENBERG, E. 1934–38. Ergänzungen und Berichtungen zu K. Mühlenbachs Lettisch-deutschem Wörterbuch, I. Riga: Lettischer Kulturfond.

[21] ESIJ Ėtimologičeskij slovaŕ iranskix jazykov, Tom IV, by DŽOJ I. ĖDEĽMAN. Moskva: Vostočnaja literatura.

[22] ESJS Etymologický slovník jazyka staroslověnského, 1–15, ed. By EVA HAVLOVÁ,ADOLF ERHART, ILONA JANYŠKOVÁ. Praha: Academia / Tribun EU 1989f.

[23] ESSJ Ėtimologičeskij slovaŕ slavjanskix jazykov, 1–35, ed. by O.N. TRUBAČEV et al., Moskva: Nauka 1974f.

[24] EWAhd Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Althochdeutsch, Bd. I-II, von ALBERT L. LLOYD & OTTO SPRINGER. Göttingen-Zürich: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 1988–98.

[25] EWAI MAYRHOFER, MANFRED. 1986–2001. Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen, I–III. Heidelberg: Winter.

[26] FRAENKEL, ERNST. 1962–65. Litauisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. Heidelberg: Winter – Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

[27] FRISK, HJALMAR. 1973f. Griechisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, I-III. Heidelberg: Winter.

[28] FRONZAROLI, PELIO. 1969. Studi sul lessico comune semitico VI. La natura domestica. Academia Nazionale dei Lincei. rendiconti della Classe Scienze morali, storiche e filologiche, Serie VIII, vol. XXIV, fasc. 7–12, 1–36.

[29] GARCÍA RAMÓN, JOSÉ LUIS. 2006. Hitita uarr- 'ayudar' y kari̯a-mi/tta 'mostrar benevolencia', hom. ἦρα φέρειν (y χάριν φέρειν) 'dar satisfacción', IE *uerH- 'favorecer' y *ĝher(H)- 'estar a gusto, desear'. In: Studi Linguistici in Onore di Roberto Gusmani, a cura di Raffaella Bombi et alii. Alessandria: Orso, 825–846.

[30] GAMKRELIDZE, TAMAS & IVANOV, VJAČESLAV. 1984. Indoevropejskij jazyk i indoevropejcy. Tbilisi: Izdatel'stvo tbilisskogo univerziteta.

[31] GOLĄB, ZBIGNIEW. 1982. Kiedy nastąpilo raszczepienie językowe Baltów i Słowian? Acta Baltico-Slavica 14, 121–133.

[32] HAWKINS, JOHN DAVID. 2000. Corpus of Hieroglyphic Luwian Inscriptions, Volume I: Inscriptions of the Iron Age, Part 1. Berlin-New York: Walter de Gruyter.

[33] HAWKINS, JOHN DAVID. 2004. The Stag-God of the Countryside and Related Problems. In: Indo-European Perspectives. Studies in Honour of Anna Morpurgo Davies, edited by J.H.W. Penney. Oxford: University Press, 355–369.

[34] HENRY, VICTOR. 1900, Lexique étymologique des termes les plus usuels du breton moderne. Rennes: Plihon & Hervé.

[35] HOAD, T. F. 1986. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

[36] HULD, MARTIN E. 1990. The Linguistic Typology of the Old European Substrate in North Central Europe. Journal of Indo-European Studies 18, 389–424.

[37] IVANOV, VYACHESLAV V. 2003. On the origin of Tocharian terms for GRAIN. In: Language in Time and Space: A festschrift for Werner Winter on the Occasion of his 80th Birthday, ed. Brigitte L.M. Bauer & Georges-Jean Pinault. Berlin-New York: Mouton de Gruyter,189–210.

[38] KARLGREN, BERNHARD. 1923. Analytic Dictionary of Chinese and Sino-Japanese. Paris: Geuthner.

[39] KLOEKHORST, ALWIN. 2006. Čop's Law in Luwian Revisited. Die Sprache 46/2, 131–136.

[40] KLOEKHORST, ALWIN. 2008. Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon. Leiden-Boston: Brill.

[41] KLUGE, FRIEDRICH. 1999. Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache, bearbeitet von Elmar Seebold. Berlin-New York: Walter de Gruyter.

[42] LDW MÜHLENBACH, KARL. 1923–1932. Latviešu valodas vārdnīca. Lettisch-deutsches Wörterbuch, I.–IV. Ed. JĀNIS ENDZELĪNS. Rīga: Herausgegeben vom lettischen Kulturfond.

[43] LEIA VENDRYES, JOSEPH. 1959f. Lexique étymologique de l'irlandais ancien. Dublin: Institute for Advanced Studies - Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

[44] LEHMANN, WINFRED P. 1986. A Gothic Etymological Dictionary. Leiden: Brill.

[45] LIV Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben, ed. by HELMUT RIX et alii. Wiesbaden: Reichert 2001.

[46] LUBOTSKY, ALEXANDER & STAROSTIN, SERGEI. 2003. Turkic and Chinese loan words in Tocharian. In: Language in time and space. A Festschrift for Werner Winter on the occasion of his 80th birthday, edd. Brigitte L.M. Bauer, Georges-Jean Pinault, Berlin - New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 257–269.

[47] MACHEK, VÁCLAV. 1968. Etymologický slovník jazyka českého, Praha: Academia.

[48] MARTIROSYAN, HRACH. 2010. Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon. Leiden-Boston: Brill.

[49] MATASOVIĆ, RANKO. 2009. Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic. Leiden-Boston: Brill.

[50] MELCHERT, H. CRAIG. 1988. "Thorn" and "Minus" in Hieroglyphic Luvian Orthography. Anatolian Studies 38, 29–42. | DOI 10.2307/3642839

[51] MELCHERT, H.CRAIG. 1994. Anatolian Historical Phonology. Amsterdam-Atlanta: Rodopi.

[52] MORGENSTIERNE, GEORG. 1929. The Language of the Ashkun Kafirs. Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap 2, 192–289.

[53] NCED A North Caucasian Etymological Dictionary, by Sergei L. Nikolayev & Sergei A. Starostin. Moscow: Asterisk Publishers.

[54] NEVP A New Etymological Vocabulary of Pashto by GEORG MORGENSTUERNE, ed. by J. ELFENBEIN, D. N. MACKENZIE & N. SIMS-WILLIAMS. Wiesbaden: Reichert 2003.

[55] NIL Nomina im Indogermanischen Lexikon, von DAGMAR S. WODTKO, BRITTA IRSLINGER, CAROLIN SCHNEIDER. Heidelberg: Winter 2008.

[56] OLSEN, BIRGIT A. 1999. The Noun in Biblical Armenian. Berlin – New York: Mouton de Gruyter (Trends in Linguistics, Studies and Monographs 119).

[57] PAXALINA, TAT'JANA N. 1983. Issledovanie po sravnitel'no-istoričeskoj fonetike pamirskix jazykov. Moskva: Nauka.

[58] PEDERSEN, HOLGER. 1909–13. Vergleichende Grammatik der keltischen Sprachen. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

[59] PEIROS, ILIA & STAROSTIN, SERGEI. 1996. A Comparative Vocabulary of Five Sino-Tibetan Languages, III (Laterals), V (Velars, Uvulars and Laryngeals). Melbourne: Department of Linguistics and Applied Linguistics of the University of Melbourne.

[60] PINAULT, GEORGES-JEAN. 2008. Chrestomathie tokharienne: Textes et grammaire. Leuven-Paris: Peeters.

[61] POKORNY, JULIUS. 1959. Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. Bern-München: Francke.

[62] PULLEYBLANK, EDWIN G.: Lexicon of Reconstructed Pronunciation in Early Middle Chinese, Late Middle Chinese, and Early Mandarin. Vancouver: UBC Press 1991.

[63] SCHNEIDER, KARL. 1940. Zur Wortkunde und Grammatik des Tocharischen. Indogermanische Forschungen 57, 193–204.

[64] SCHRIJVER, PETER. 1991. The Reflexes of the Proto-Indo-European Laryngeals in Latin. Amsterdam – Atlanta: Rodopi.

[65] SCHRIJVER, PETER. 1995. Studies in British Celtic Historical Phonology. Amsterdam-Atlanta: Rodopi.

[66] SCHUESSLER, AXEL. 2007. ABC Etymological Dictionary of Old Chinese. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press.

[67] SKES Suomen kielen etymologinen sanakirja, I-VII, ed. Y.H. TOIVONEN et alii. Helsinki: LSFU XII, 1–7, 1955–1981.

[68] SŁAWSKI, FRANCISZEK. 1974–76. Zarys słowotworstwa prasłowianskiego, I-II. In: Słownik prasłowiański, I, 43–141; II, 13–59. Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków-Gdańsk: Ossolineum.

[69] SMOCZYŃSKI, WOJCIECH. 2007. Słownik etymologiczny języka litewskiego. Wilno: Uniwersytet Wileński, Wydzial filologiczny.

[70] SNOJ, MARKO. 2003. Slovenski etimološki slovar. Ljubljana: Modrijan.

[71] STARKE, FRANK. 1990. Untersuchung zur Stammbildung des keilschrift-luwischen Nomens. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

[72] STAROSTIN, SERGEJ A. 1988. Indoevropejsko-severnokavkazskie izoglossy. In: Drevnij Vostok. Ėtnokuľturnye svjazi, ed. G.M. Bongard-Levin & V.G. Ardzinba. Moskva: Nauka, 112–163.

[73] STEBLIN-KAMENSKIJ, IVAN M. 1982. Očerki po istorii leksiki pamirskix jazykov: nazvanija kul'turnyx rastenij. Moskva: Nauka.

[74] THORDARSON, FRIDRIK. 1989. Ossetic. In: Compendium Linguarum Iranicum, ed. Rüdiger Schmitt. Wiesbaden: Reichert.

[75] TURNER, RALPH. 1966. A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages. London - New York - Toronto: Oxford University Press.

[76] VALČÁKOVÁ, PAVLA & BLAŽEK, VÁCLAV. 1997. Psl. *kolsъ. Sborník prací Filosofické fakulty Brněnské university A 45, 27–30.

[77] VAN WINDEKENS, ALBERT J. 1976. Le tokharien confronté avec les autres langues indo-européennes, Vol. 1: La phonétique et le vocabulaire. Louvain: Centre International de Dialectologie Générale.

[78] VASMER, MAX. 1986–88. Ėtimologičeskij slovaŕ russkogo jazyka, I-IV, transl. O.N. Trubačev, Moskva: Progress.

[79] DE VRIES, JAN. 1962. Altnordisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. Leiden: Brill.

[80] WITCZAK, KRZYSTOF T. 2003. Indoeuropejskie nazwy zbóż. Łódź: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego.

[81] WITZEL, MICHAEL. 2009. The linguistic history of some Indian domestic plants. Journal of BioSciences 34(6), 829–833. http://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/8954814/Witzel_Linguistic.pdf?sequence=1 | DOI 10.1007/s12038-009-0096-1