Evangelium podle Pullmana : vliv fantastické literatury na rozvoj empatie a mentalizace

Title: Evangelium podle Pullmana : vliv fantastické literatury na rozvoj empatie a mentalizace
Variant title:
  • Gospel according to Pullman : the influence of fantastic literature on the development of empathy and mentalization
Source document: Bohemica litteraria. 2022, vol. 25, iss. 1, pp. 55-75
  • ISSN
    1213-2144 (print)
    2336-4394 (online)
Type: Article

Notice: These citations are automatically created and might not follow citation rules properly.

The aim of this paper is to find out how reading of literary fiction affects the reader's cognitive and affective abilities, especially their ability to empathize and mentalize. It is based on the findings of contemporary cognitive science and follows the ideas of Marek Oziewicz and Maria Nikolajeva, who are not well-known in the Czech environment. They claim that fantastic literature is more cognitively-stimulating than mimetic literature, as interpretation of fictional worlds leads to more demanding mental experiments. A novel trilogy His Dark Materials (1995–2005) by British writer Philip Pullman is used to demonstrate the theses of both researchers. Its interpretation places high demands on the reader and requires considerable cognitive effort. The reader gets acquainted with a fantastic fictional world where abstract concepts such as soul, faith or knowledge are materialized into concrete forms. Results of the analysis of the trilogy support general claims of cognitive literary science that reading of literary fiction advances the theory of mind, and that fantasy can be even more beneficial in that regard.
[1] PULLMAN, Philip. 2007a. Zlatý kompas (Praha: Argo)

[2] PULLMAN, Philip. 2007b. Jedinečný nůž (Praha: Argo)

[3] PULLMAN, Philip. 2007c. Jantarové kukátko (Praha: Argo)

[4] ALA (American Library Association). 2013. "Top 10 Most Challenged Books Lists", in Banned & Challanged Books: A Website of the ALA Office for Intellectual Freedom [online]. Chicago: American Library Associationu [cit. 2022-02-27]. Dostupné z: https://www.ala.org/advocacy/bbooks/frequentlychallengedbooks/top10

[5] APA (American Psychological Association). 2016. "'Does reading a single passage of literary fiction really improve theory of mind? An attempt at replication': Correction to Panero et al. (2016)", Journal of Personality and Social Psychology [online]. 2016, 111(5), e55-e55 [cit. 2021-12-16] | DOI 10.1037/pspa0000067

[6] ARMSTRONG, Paul B. 2013. How literature plays with the brain: the neuroscience of reading and art (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press)

[7] CERNIGLIA, Luca, Letizia BARTOLOMEO, Micaela CAPOBIANCO et al. 2019. "Intersections and Divergences Between Empathizing and Mentalizing: Development, Recent Advancements by Neuroimaging and the Future of Animal Modeling", Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 2019, 13

[8] CIABATTARI, Jane. 2015. "The 100 greatest British novels", in BBC: Culture [online] (London: BBC Global News), [cit. 2021-12-16]. Dostupné z: https://www.bbc.com/culture/article/20151204-the-100-greatest-british-novels

[9] DOUTHAT, Ross. 2007. "What's Wrong With His Dark Materials", The Atlantic [online], [cit. 2022-02-27]. Dostupné z: https://www.theatlantic.com/personal/archive/2007/12/whats-wrongwith-i-his-dark-materials-i/55116/

[10] ECHEVARRÍA Marco, N. a P. C. Reyna. 2018. "Entrevista a Philip Pullman", El Templo de las Mil Puertas (63), 17–24

[11] FLETCHER, Paul Charles. 1995. "Other minds in the brain: a functional imaging study of 'theory of mind' in story comprehension", Cognition [online], 57(2), 109–128 [cit. 2021-12-16] | DOI 10.1016/0010-0277(95)00692-R

[12] FOUILLOUX, Danielle. 1992. Slovník biblické kultury (Praha: EWA Edition)

[13] HOGAN, Patrick Colm. 2003a. Cognitive Science, Literature, and the Arts: A Guide for Humanistsu (New York end London: Routledge)

[14] HOGAN, Patrick Colm. 2003b. The mind and its stories: narrative universals and human emotion. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)

[15] HOGAN, Patrick Colm. 2018a. Literature and emotion (New York, NY: Routledge)

[16] HOGAN, Patrick Colm. 2018b. Sexual identities: a cognitive literary study (New York, NY: Oxford University Press)

[17] HOLLAND, Norman N. 2009. Literature and the brain (Gainesville, FL: PsyArt Foundation)

[18] KANE, Eileen. 2010. Trickster: An Anthropological Memoir. Ilustrated edition (Toronto: University of Toronto Press)

[19] KEEN, Susan. 2016. "Life writing and the empathetic circle", Concentric: Literary and Cultural Studies, 42(2), 9–26

[20] KIDD, David Comer a Emanuele CASTANO. 2017. "Panero et al. (2016): 'Failure to replicate methods caused the failure to replicate results'", Journal of Personality and Social Psychology [online], 2017, 112(3), 1–4 [cit. 2021-12-16]

[21] KONRAD, Eva M., Thomas PETRASCHKA a Christiana WERNER. 2018. "The Paradox of Fiction–A Brief Introduction into Recent Developments, Open Questions, and Current Areas of Research, including a Comprehensive Bibliography from 1975 to 2018", Journal of Literary Theory, 12(2), 193–203 | DOI 10.1515/jlt-2018-0011

[22] KOUKOLÍK, František. 2013. "Neurobiologie dospívání", Praktický lékař, 93(6), 247–253

[23] KOUKOLÍK, František. 2016. Sociální mozek: evoluce a neuronální podklady. Druhé, přepracované vydání (Praha: Univerzita Karlova v Praze, nakladatelství Karolinum)

[24] KUZMIČOVÁ, ANEŽKA a Teresa CREMIN. 2022. "Different fiction genres take children's memories to different places", Cambridge Journal of Education, 52(1), 37–53 | DOI 10.1080/0305764X.2021.1937523

[25] LE GUINOVÁ, Ursula K. 2019. Proč číst fantasy, jak to, že zvířata v knížkách mluví, a odkdy se Američané bojí draků (Praha: Gnóm)

[26] MEACHAM, Steve. 2003. "The Shed Where God Died", The Sydney Morning Herald [cit. 2021-12-16]. Dostupné z: https://www.smh.com.au/entertainment/books/the-shed-where-god-died-20031213-gdhz09.html

[27] MÜLLER, Lutz a Anette MÜLLER (eds.). 2006. Slovník analytické psychologie (Praha: Portál)

[28] NIKOLAJEVA, Maria. 2014. Reading for learning: cognitive approaches to children's literature. Reprint (Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company)

[29] OZIEWICZ, Marek. 2015. Justice in Young Adult Speculative Fiction: A Cognitive Reading (London: Routledge)

[30] PANERO, Maria E., Deena S. WEISBERG, Jessica BLACK et al. 2016. "Does reading a single passage of literary fiction really improve theory of mind? An attempt at replication", Journal of Personality and Social Psychology [online], 111(5), 46–54 [cit. 2021-12-16] | DOI 10.1037/pspa0000064

[31] PANERO, Maria E., Deena S. WEISBERG, Jessica BLACK et al. 2017. "No support for the claim that literary fiction uniquely and immediately improves theory of mind: A reply to Kidd and Castano's commentary on Panero et al.", Journal of Personality and Social Psychology [online], 112(3), 5–8 [cit. 2021-12-16]

[32] PILKINGTON, Ed. 2008. "Children's writer Philip Pullman ranked second on US banned books list", The Guardian [online]. [cit. 2022-02-27]. Dostupné z: https://www.theguardian.com/books/2009/sep/30/american-library-association-banned-books

[33] PREZIOSO, Mary G. 2021. "Enchantment and Understanding in Philip Pullman's His Dark Materials: Advancing Cognition Through Literature", Child Lit Educ. 2021, 52, 543–554

[34] STEFANOVIČ, David P. 2008. "Philip Pullman: Jeho temné esence", Neviditelný pes [online], [cit. 2022-02-27]. Dostupné z: https://neviditelnypes.lidovky.cz/scifi/recenze-philip-pullman-jeho-temne-esence.A080808_162238_p_scifi_hpe

[35] VERMEULE, Blakey. 2010. Why do we care about literary characters? (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press)

[36] WINERMAN, Lea. 2005. "The mind's mirror: A new type of neuron--called a mirror neuron--could help explain how we learn through mimicry and why we empathize with others", Monitor on Psychology 36(9), 48, 48–49

[37] WRIGHT, John C. 2007. "Phillip Pullman, on the other hand, is no hero of mine", Live Journal [online]. [cit. 2022-02-27]. Dostupné z: https://johncwright.livejournal.com/134046.html

[38] ZUNSHINE, Lisa. 2006. Why We Read Fiction: Theory of Mind and the Novel (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press)