Severitas and clementia in punishing the crimen maiestatis from Principate to Dominate

Source document: Graeco-Latina Brunensia. 2013, vol. 18, iss. 1, pp. [149]-158
Extent
[149]-158
  • ISSN
    1803-7402 (print)
    2336-4424 (online)
Type
Article
Language
English
License: Not specified license
Abstract(s)
In this paper, the image of immense cruelty of emperors and their officials under the Dominate, presented with lots of details by Ammianus Marcellinus, will be discussed as an aspect of the emperors' attitude towards the law in political charges evolving from the Principate to the Dominate. Using the example of judicial torture which should have been excluded in criminal trials of free citizens until the late Principate, and of trials mostly concerning political magic that supplied one of the most questionable sort of charges during the Dominate, the paper endeavors to demonstrate that atrocities formed part of the criminal investigation already under the Principate while death was not the only punishment for crimes associated with politics under the Dominate, even though the law recommended it.
Summary language
Document
References:
[1] Allison, J. E. – Cloud, J. D. 1962. The Lex Julia Maiestatis . Latomus, 21, 711–731.

[2] Angliviel de laBeaumelle, Laurent. 1992. La torture dans les Res Gestae d'Ammien Marcellin . In: Christol, Michel – Denougin, Ségolène – Duval, Yvette – Lepelley, Claude – Pietri, Luce [eds.]. Institutions, société et vie politique dans l'empire romain au IVe siècle ap. J.-C: actes de la table ronde autour de l'oeuvre d'André Chastagnol (Paris, 20–21 Janvier 1989). Rome: École française de Rome, Palais Farnèse, 91–113.

[3] Bauman, Richard A. 1973. The lex Valeria de provocatione of 300 B.C . Historia, 22, 43–47.

[4] CAH 7,2: Walbank, Frank W. – Astin, Allan E. – Frederiksen, Martin W. – Ogilvie, Robert M. – Drummond, Andrew [eds.]. 2006. The Cambridge Ancient History: vol. VII: part 2: the Rise of Rome to 220 B.C . Second Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[5] Cary, Earnest [ed.]. 1955. Dio's Roman History: in Nine Volumes: VII . London: Heinemann; Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

[6] Cary, Earnest [ed.]. 1955. Dio's Roman History: in Nine Volumes: IX . London: Heinemann; Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

[7] Coşkun, Altay. 2000. Ammianus Marcellinus und die Prozesse in Rom (a. 368/69–71/74) . Tyche, 15, 63–92.

[8] Garnsey, Peter. 1970. Social Status and Legal Privilege in the Roman Empire . Oxford: Clarendon.

[9] Hammond, Mason H. 1933. The Augustan Principate in Theory and Practice During the Julio-Claudian Period . Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Krueger, Paul [ed.]. 1895. Corpus iuris civilis: volumen secundum: Codex Iustinianus. Berlin: Weidmann.

[10] Liebs, Detlef. 1985. Unverhohlene Brutalität in den Gesetzen des ersten christlichen Kaiser . In: Behrends, Okko – Diesselhorst, Malte – Voss, Wulf Eckart [eds.]. Römisches Recht in der europäischen Tradition: Symposion aus Anlass des 75. Geburtstages von Franz Wieacker. Ebelsbach: Gremer, 89–116.

[11] Lintott, Andrew. 1999. The Constitution of the Roman Republic . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[12] McAlindon, D. 1956. Senatorial Opposition to Claudius and Nero . American Journal of Philology, 77, 2, 113–132. | DOI 10.2307/292474

[13] Mommsen, Theodor – Krueger, Paul [eds.]. 1877. Corpus iuris civilis: volumen primum: Institutiones: Digesta . Berlin: Weidmann.

[14] Mommsen, Theodor – Krueger, Paul [eds.]. 1990. Codex Theodosianus: volumen I: Theodosiani libri XVI cum constitutionibus Sirmondinis: pars posterior: textus cum apparatu . Berlin: Weidmann.

[15] Nipperdey, Karl [ed.]. 1871. Cornelius Tacitus: ab excessu divi Augusti I–VI . Berlin: Weidmann.

[16] Nipperdey, Karl [ed.]. 1873. Cornelius Tacitus: ab excessu divi Augusti XI–XVI mit der Rede des Claudius ueber das Ius honorum der Gallier . Berlin: Weidmann.

[17] PIR: Petersen, Leiva– Wachtel, Klaus – Heil, Matthäus – Johne, Klaus-Peter – Vidman, Ladislav [eds.]. 1998. Prosopographia imperii Romani saec. I., II., III.: pars VI . Editio altera. Berlin/New York: de Gruyter.

[18] PLRE I: Jones, Arnold Hugh Martin – Martindale, John Robert – Morris, John 1971. The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire: vol. I: A.D. 260–395 . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[19] Rilinger, Rolf. 1988. Humiliores – Honestiores: zu einer sozialen Dichotomie im Strafrecht der römischen Kaiserzeit . München: Oldenbourg.

[20] Roth, Karl Ludwig [ed.]. 1904. C. Suetoni Tranquilli quae supersunt omnia . Leipzig: Teubner.

[21] Seyfarth, Wolfgang [ed.]. 1978. Ammiani Marcellini Rerum gestarum libri qui super-sunt: vol. I: libri XIV‒XXV . Leipzig: Teubner.

[22] Seyfarth, Wolfgang – Jacob-Karau, Liselotte– Ulmann, Ilse [eds.]. 1978. Ammiani Marcellini Rerum gestarum libri qui supersunt: vol. II: libri XXVI‒XXXI . Leipzig: Teubner.